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Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue 4
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1
CHROMOSOME NUMBER, KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS AND POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF TURKISH ENDEMIC TORDYLIUM ELEGANS (BOISS. & BAL.) ALAVA & HUB.-MOR. (APIACEAE)
AYŞE NİHAL GÖMÜRGEN1, CAHİT DOĞAN1, EDİBE ÖZMEN1, BİROL BAŞER2 AND HAŞİM ALTINÖZLÜ1

CHROMOSOME NUMBER, KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS AND POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF TURKISH ENDEMIC TORDYLIUM ELEGANS (BOISS. & BAL.) ALAVA & HUB.-MOR. (APIACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
The chromosome number, karyotype and pollen analysis of Turkish endemic species Tordylium elegans (Boiss. & Bal.) Alava & Hub.-Mor. are reported in this paper for the first time. The somatic chromosome number is determined as 2n = 4x = 16. It is a tetraploid species and the basic chromosome number is x = 4. Haploid karyotype formula is 4sm + 3m + 1T. The pollen morphology of T. elegans was examined under light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen of T. elegans are radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate, perprolate and equatorially-constricted.

1803-1807 Download
2
TWO NEW SPECIES OF EUPHRASIA (OROBANCHANCEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND ADJOINING AREAS
M. QAISER1, TAHMEENA SIDDIQUI2 AND S. SHAHID SHAUKAT2

TWO NEW SPECIES OF EUPHRASIA (OROBANCHANCEAE) FROM PAKISTAN AND ADJOINING AREAS
ABSTRACT:
A morphological analysis of Euphrasia densiflora complex and E. jaeschkei complex from Pakistan and adjoining areas was carried out. Principal component analysis of 46 OTU’s for E. densiflora complex and 27 OTU’s for E. jaeschkei were employed which resulted in the recognization of E. densiflora Pennell sensu stricto, E. jaeschkei Wettst. sensu stricto and two new species E. omeri Qaiser & T. Siddiqui and E. alii Qaiser & T. Siddiqui. The relationship of the allied species has also been discussed.

1809-1818 Download
3
ARTEMISIA SIEBERI BESS. SUBSP. SIEBERI A NEW RECORD FOR TURKEY AND A DELETE RECORD FOR TURKEY ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA ASSO. (ASTERACEAE)
MURAT KURŞAT1,*, ŞEMSETTIN CIVELEK1, ISMAIL TURKOĞLU2, AND SELMA TABUR3

ARTEMISIA SIEBERI BESS. SUBSP. SIEBERI A NEW RECORD FOR TURKEY AND A DELETE RECORD FOR TURKEY ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA ASSO. (ASTERACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
In the revision study on the genus Artemisia L. in Turkey, we observed that there were differences between the descriptions of Artemisia herba - alba Asso. in Flora Europea and Flora of Turkey and that the description of Artemisia herba – alba Asso. in Flora of Turkey was problematic. We observed that the Turkish specimens were the same as the specimens called Artemisia sieberi Bess., which were collected from Siberia, Caucasia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. We found that our specimens matched the descriptions given for Artemisia sieberi Bess. in Flora of Iranica and Flora of Ussr. Thus, we determined that the species of Artemisia herba - alba Asso. wasn’t found in Turkey and the specimens given as Artemisia herba -alba Asso. in Flora of Turkey were Artemisia sieberi Bess. subsp. sieberi which is a new record for the Flora of Turkey. The description, disribution map in Turkey and photography of Artemisia sieberi Bess. subsp. sieberi are given.

1819-1821 Download
4
POSTEMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF CISTANCHE TUBULOSA (SCHRENK) WHIGT
CHEN QING-LIANG1,2, JIA YA-MIN2, WANG ZHI-FEN1*, SHAN CHENG-GANG1, ZHU JING-BIN1 AND GUO YU-HAI2

POSTEMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF CISTANCHE TUBULOSA (SCHRENK) WHIGT
ABSTRACT:
The embryo of the mature seed of the parasitic angiosperm Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Whigt remains at pro-embryo stage. Little is known about the establishment of shoot and root apical meristems at poles of the embryonic body during postembryonic development. Thus, structure of the embryo of the mature seed and how and what the shoot and root apical meristems develop into during postembryonic development were investigated using light and dissecting stereo-microscopes. In the mature seed, the plumular pole of the embryo consists of large vacuolated, dense cells, containing starch granules and the radicular pole consists of decidedly smaller and denser cells lacking starch. During seed germination and parasitization, plumular pole cells expired without forming the apical meristem or cotyledons; while radicular pole cells formed a meristematic zone, which developed into a young parasite. We therefore conclude that:

1823-1830 Download
5
RELATIONSHIP AMONG ROOT CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENTIAL POTASSIUM UPTAKE AND USE EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED COTTON GENOTYPES UNDER POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY STRESS
ZIA-UL-HASSAN1* AND MUHAMMAD ARSHAD2

RELATIONSHIP AMONG ROOT CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENTIAL POTASSIUM UPTAKE AND USE EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED COTTON GENOTYPES UNDER POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Potassium (K) uptake and K use efficiency are the most important characters of plant genotypes that determine their biomass production under K deficiency stress. This study reports the influence of some important root characters on the K uptake and use efficiency of three pre-selected cotton genotypes under K deficiency stress. These genotypes included CIM-506, NIAB-78 and NIBGE-2, selected on the basis of their differential K use efficiency i.e., low, medium and high, respectively. Cotton genotypes significantly (p<0.01) differed for their K use efficiency, K uptake of shoot, root and on total basis, tap-root length, lateral root number and specific K absorption rate based on tap root length. While, K accumulation rate, K translocation efficiency, K transport rate and specific K absorption rate based on root dry weight were non-significant. The genotype NIBGE-2 was the most tolerant genotype to K deficiency stress and performed best for all the parameters studied followed by NIAB-78 and CIM-506. A significant correlation was observed between K use efficiency and K uptake of cotton genotypes. The root characteristics viz., tap root length, lateral root number, K accumulation rate and specific K absorption rate directly influence both K uptake and use efficiency of cotton under deficient K condition. K translocation rate and specific K absorption rate, based on root dry weight, directly influence total K uptake but not K use efficiency. These physio-morphological root traits of cotton are highly important while breeding for K-use-efficient cotton genotypes.

1831-1835 Download
6
AN ATTEMPT TO CONSERVE WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (L.) DUNAL - A HIGHLY ESSENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT, THROUGH IN VITRO CALLUS CULTURE
JYOTI RANJAN ROUT*, SANTI LATA SAHOO AND RITARANI DAS

AN ATTEMPT TO CONSERVE WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (L.) DUNAL - A HIGHLY ESSENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT, THROUGH IN VITRO CALLUS CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on ½ MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation

1837-1842 Download
7
SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENT PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE REGENERATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM PLANTLETS (DENDRANTHEMA MORIFOLIUM L.) THROUGH SHOOT TIP CULTURE
KASHIF WASEEM1* MUHAMMAD SALEEM JILANI1 MUHAMMAD JAFFAR JASKANI2, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL KHAN3, MEHWISH KIRAN1 AND GHAZANFAR ULLAH KHAN

SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENT PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE REGENERATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM PLANTLETS (DENDRANTHEMA MORIFOLIUM L.) THROUGH SHOOT TIP CULTURE
ABSTRACT:
Shoot multiplication of Chrysanthemum was achieved from shoot tip explant, using MS (Murashige & Skoog) media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. Different parameters including shoot initiation percentage, average number of shoots per explant, length of shoots (cm), number of leaves per shoot and number of nodes per shoot were studied. Lowest concentration (0.5 mg/L) of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) excelled all the other concentrations in almost all the parameter studied when used alone. Maximum shoot initiation (80.00%), shoot per explants (3.2), length of shoots (3.4 cm), number of leaves (9.5) and nodes (4.5) were recorded in MS media showed supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA. Intermediate concentration (1.0 mg/L) of benzyle adenine purine (BAP) its superiority over all the other BAP concentrations used, when used alone. MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/L BAP had produced maximum shoot initiation (93.3%), shoot per explant (4.1), length of shoots (5.0 cm) number of leaves (11.0) and nodes (5.5). Similarly, when the combination of different concentrations of NAA and BAP were used, significant results regarding intermediate concentration of regeneration of chrysanthemum plantlets were achieved. MS media supplemented with lower concentrations of NAA (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) and BAP (1.0 and 1.5 mg/L) showed better results as compared to other concentrations and combinations. Satisfactory rooting response including days to root emergence (5.0), root initiation percentage (100%), roots per plantlet (14.3) and root length (9.0 cm) was obtained in half strength MS media supplemented with 0.2 mg/L Indole butyric acid (IBA).

1843-1848 Download
8
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON SOME USEFUL PLANTS OF DIR KOHISTAN VALLEYS, KPK, PAKISTAN
GUL JAN1, MIR AJAB KHAN2, FARHATULLAH3*, FARZANA GUL JAN4, MUSHTAQ AHMAD2, MASOOD JAN3 AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR2

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON SOME USEFUL PLANTS OF DIR KOHISTAN VALLEYS, KPK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
An ethnobotanical exploration was carried out in Dir Kohistan Valleys. The checklist consisted of 65 species out of which 62 species were of 47 angiospermic families while three were of gymnospermic families. These plants were used medicinally and for other purposes. The investigation indicated that medicinal plants were used singly or in mixtures by local inhabitants. It was observed that unplanned exploitation had resulted in loss of medicinally important plant species. It was concluded that reforestation programs followed by proper protection is need of time.

1849-1852 Download
9
THE MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF THE HAUSTORIA OF THE HOLOPARASITIC ANGIOSPERM CUSCUTA CAMPESTRIS
LAN HONG1,2,*, HAO SHEN2,*, HUA CHEN2,3,†, LING LI1, XIAOYING HU2, XINLAN XU2, WANHUI YE2 AND ZHANGMING WANG2

THE MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF THE HAUSTORIA OF THE HOLOPARASITIC ANGIOSPERM CUSCUTA CAMPESTRIS
ABSTRACT:
The morphology and anatomy of the haustoria of the holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta campestris parasitizing itself and different tissues of Mikania micrantha were studied under scanning electron microscope, confocal laser scanning electron microscope and light microscope. C. campestris has a low stomatal density on the stem and there is a nonfunctional conical protuberance with a unique elliptic pore at the apex, which has not been reported before and we call it pseudo-haustorium. The pseudo-haustorium originates from the cortical parenchyma just external to the pericycle. Its initial cells divide anticlinally and periclinally, and then develop into an endophyte primordium, which consists of file cells and meristematic cells. When C. campestris infects host stem, petiole, leaf lamina and itself, it prefers host stem and has the least choice for leaf lamina. The development of the haustoria invading different tissues reveals that the haustorium in the leaf lamina region without veins is initially flat and its search hyphae does not differentiate into xylem and phloem hyphae, which differs from the haustoria with the annular vessel and phloem hyphae in host stem, petiole and its own stem. These indicate that the haustoria might differentiate vascular tissues only when their search hyphae come in with the contact the vascular tissues of the host or itself.

1853-1859 Download
10
STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY, VEGETATION DYNAMICS AND ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON LESSER HIMALAYAN SUBTROPICAL FORESTS OF BAGH DISTRICT, KASHMIR
HAMAYUN SHAHEEN1, RIZWANA ALEEM QURESHI1 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2*

STRUCTURAL DIVERSITY, VEGETATION DYNAMICS AND ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON LESSER HIMALAYAN SUBTROPICAL FORESTS OF BAGH DISTRICT, KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
Patterns of species composition and diversity in the lesser Himalayan subtropical forests of Kashmir were studied in relation to environmental variables and underlying anthropogenic influence. Simpson’s diversity ranged from 0.85 to 1.96; Menhinick’s diversity

1861-1866 Download
11
INFLUENCE OF PLANTATION TYPE ON GROUND FLORA COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN GATWALA ARTIFICIAL FOREST PLANTATION
MANSOOR HAMEED*, RAMLA KHAN, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1, TAHIRA NAWAZ, MUHAMMAD SAJID AQEEL AHMAD AND SADAF MUBARIK

INFLUENCE OF PLANTATION TYPE ON GROUND FLORA COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN GATWALA ARTIFICIAL FOREST PLANTATION
ABSTRACT:
Gutwala Artificial Forest Plantation is important due to conservation viewpoint because many endangered species have been planted therein. A survey was conducted to assess the species diversity and ordination as influenced by different plantation types of both native and exotic nature. In the plantation, 58 tree species have been planted, most of these species being exotic. The impact of the Gutwala plantations on ground vegetation of native flora was quite prominent, where some species had resulted in complete elimination of ground flora. This effect may be mainly due to dense canopy cover, resulting into poor sunlight penetration. In addition, some other factors like allelopathic effect of the planted species on ground vegetation as well as a large amount of leaf shedding of the planted species, make harder ground flora to germinate or grow. Mixed type of Eucalyptus plantation supported mainly grass species like Cynodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum. Meliaceae (Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach and Cedrela toona) restricted the germination and growth of several ground cover species. Papilionaceae (Butea frondosa, Dalbergia sissoo, Pongamia pinnata and D. latifolia) had a single dominant grass species C. dactylon. Mimosaceae (Acacia nilotica, A.modesta and A. sanegal) plantation had a relatively thin ground cover as compared to that in other plantations. In Caesalpiniaceae (Cassia fistula and Bauhinia purpurea) plantation, C. dactylon was the major component of ground vegetation along with two other grasses D. annulatum and Cenchrus pennisetiformis. Dendrocalamus giganteus had slowly decaying and enormously shedding scaly and foliar leaves, which seemed to have inhibited the germination and growth of ground cover species. On the whole, Cynodon dactylon was the most dominant among ground flora, which was followed by Cenchrus pennisetiformis and Dichanthium annulatum. Among dicots, Conyza boneriensis, Coronopus didymus, Atriplex crassifolia, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Sisymbrium irio and Malva parviflora were the dominant species.

1867-1872 Download
12
USE OF GPS AND GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURVEYING AND MAPPING OF WHEAT AND COTTON WEEDS IN KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH, PAKISTAN
RABIA ASMA MEMON1*, SHAHIDA KHALID2, ARFANA MALLAH3 AND AMEER AHMED MIRBAHAR4

USE OF GPS AND GIS TECHNOLOGY IN SURVEYING AND MAPPING OF WHEAT AND COTTON WEEDS IN KHAIRPUR DISTRICT, SINDH, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Present study was conducted in the fields of Khairpur district, Sindh for the mapping of some important weeds of wheat and cotton by using GPS and GIS technology. A base map of the district was prepared by using Geographical Information System (GIS) to indicate the sampling sites and physical features of the area. Two more maps were created to depict the density and frequency of weeds of wheat and cotton crops in each Tehsil (Taluka), shown in the form of bar and pie diagrams. Present piece of work will help the scientists and managers to predict those areas, potentially subjected to weed invasion.

1873-1878 Download
13
POTENTIAL RAPD MARKERS FOR POPULATION STUDIES IN TREE LEGUMES
S. MICHAEL GOMEZ1*, T. RAMASUBRAMANIAN2 AND S. MOHANKUMAR3

POTENTIAL RAPD MARKERS FOR POPULATION STUDIES IN TREE LEGUMES
ABSTRACT:
RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method.

1879-1883 Download
14
VEGETATION AND SPECIES ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION IN AL-JABAL AL-AKHDAR LANDSCAPE, LIBYA
A. K. HEGAZY1*, L. BOULOS2, H. F. KABIEL3 AND O. S. SHARASHY4

VEGETATION AND SPECIES ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION IN AL-JABAL AL-AKHDAR LANDSCAPE, LIBYA
ABSTRACT:
Cyrenaica is the largest phytogeographical region in Libya. The region holds Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar (the Green Mountain) landscape with the richest vegetation and highest species diversity in the country. Field study of the vegetation was carried out in the different habitat types representing the mountainous landscape. Data were analyzed by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) against the environmental variables. Vegetation and species richness varied with altitude from the sea level, through mid elevation slope vegetation in wadis, to herbaceous and low-shrub-vegetation towards the mountain top. Vegetation is classified into three major groups:

1885-1898 Download
15
ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF POPULUS EUPHRATICA OLIVIER
ZAMAN SHER1, FARRUKH HUSSAIN2, BASHIR AHMAD3 AND MUHAMMAD WAHAB4

ALLELOPATHIC POTENTIAL OF POPULUS EUPHRATICA OLIVIER
ABSTRACT:
Populus euphratica Olivier is frequently cultivated deciduous tree in Pakistan on agricultural land for its shade, fodder, timber and fuel wood. A relatively reduced understorey is often observed below it. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the allelopathic potential of Popolus euphratica against some crop species. Plant material of Popolus euphratica were collected from the agriculture fields of Lahor, District Swabi in 2008 and were dried at room temperature (25˚C-30˚C). Allelopathic studies conducted by using aqueous extracts from various parts including young leaves, mature leaves, bark, litter and mulching in various experiments invariably retarded the germination, plumule, radical growth, fresh and dry weight of Sorghum vulgare Perse, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv and Triticum aestivum L., in laboratory experiments. The aqueous extracts obtained after 48 h were more inhibitory than 24 h. Leaves were more toxic than bark. Litter and mulching experiments also proved to be inhibitory. It is suggested that the various assayed parts of Populus euphratica have strong allelopathic potential at least against the tested species. Further investigation is required to see its allelopathic behavior under field condition against its associated species and to identify the toxic principles.

1899-1903 Download
16
EFFECT OF MUNGBEAN RESIDUE AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON BARLEY
AMANULLAH JAN1, IHSANULLAH DAUR2, ZAR MUHAMMAD1 AND IJAZ AHMAD KHAN3

EFFECT OF MUNGBEAN RESIDUE AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON BARLEY
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate response of barley to mungbean residue (0

1905-1908 Download
17
TOXICITY AND TOLERANCE IN SAMANEA SAMAN (JACQ.) MERR. TO SOME METALS (Pb, Cd, Cu AND Zn)
M. KABIR, M. ZAFAR IQBAL AND M. SHAFIQ

TOXICITY AND TOLERANCE IN SAMANEA SAMAN (JACQ.) MERR. TO SOME METALS (Pb, Cd, Cu AND Zn)
ABSTRACT:
In this study toxicity and tolerance of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. was investigated for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn under lab conditions. Germination rate of S. saman showed that increased concentration of different metals from 25 to 100 ppm, significantly (p<0.05) reduced germination which was more prominent for Pb treatments. Seedling growth variables i.e. root and shoot length, seedling size, root/shoot ratio, seedling fresh and dry weights also declined significantly (p<0.05). Seedlings growth of S. saman gradually reduced with increasing in concentrations of metals especially Pb and Cd compared to Cu and Zn. The inhibitory effects of metals had the following order Pb>Cd>Cu>Zn of sequence at different concentrations. Tolerance indices determined for different metal illustrated that increasing concentrations of metals reduced the tolerance of S. saman but this reduction was more prominent for Pb and Cd as compared to Cu and Zn treatments.

1909-1914 Download
18
MONITORING OF MULTIPLE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SOME FRUITS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ZAHIDA PARVEEN, RIAZUDDIN* , SAJID IQBAL, M. I. KHUHRO**, M.A. BHUTTO AND MUBARIK AHMED

MONITORING OF MULTIPLE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SOME FRUITS IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
One hundred and twenty samples of different fruits including apple, apricot, persimmon, chiku, citrus, grapes, guava, mango, papaya, peach, plum and pomegranate procured from different selling points of Karachi, Pakistan during 2008-2009, were analyzed for monitoring of multiple pesticide residues using GC/FID and HPLC/UV. The results showed exceeding level of contamination. On an average 62.5% samples contained residues of pesticides while 22% samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as given by FAO/WHO (Anon.

1915-1918 Download
19
APPLICATION OF WASTE STABILIZATION POND’S EFFLUENT ON CULTIVATION OF ROSES (ROSA DAMASCENA MILL)
MOAZZAM ALI KHAN, S. SHAHID SHAUKAT, ATIF SHAHZAD AND WAQAR AHMED

APPLICATION OF WASTE STABILIZATION POND’S EFFLUENT ON CULTIVATION OF ROSES (ROSA DAMASCENA MILL)
ABSTRACT:
The study focuses on the use of Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP) effluent for irrigation and also aims to compare the efficiency of effluent with the Hoagland solution. Results revealed that the number of flowers, size of flower and the petals per flower increased by the use of both Hoagland solution and treated effluent while the height of plant and the fresh weight of flowers were increased significantly by the Hoagland solution only. Moreover, the leaves showed high concentration of reducing and non-reducing sugars as compared to flowers whereas, only the leaves of plants which were treated by the ponds effluent had low content of reducing sugars as compared to leaves of untreated plants serving as controls. The variation in chlorophyll content was similar to that of reducing and non-reducing sugars. In addition, leaves of plants that were treated by pond’s effluent showed highest concentration of total phenol content. It is concluded that treated effluent is as effective as Hoagland for the irrigation of rose. Additionally, the use of treated effluent for irrigation reduces the demand of fresh water and the use of inorganic fertilizers for the commercial production of roses.

1919-1923 Download
20
HYPERACCUMULATORS OF HEAVY METALS OF INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF ISLAMABAD AND RAWALPINDI
ASHFAQ NAZIR1, RIFFAT NASEEM MALIK 1, MUHAMAMD AJAIB2, NASRULLAH KHAN3 AND MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI3

HYPERACCUMULATORS OF HEAVY METALS OF INDUSTRIAL AREAS OF ISLAMABAD AND RAWALPINDI
ABSTRACT:
Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major threats to water and soil as well as human health. Phytoremediation has been used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential of 23 plant species growing on contaminated sites in Industrial areas of the Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Plant root, shoot and the soil samples were collected and analyzed for selected metal concentration values. To evaluate the potential of plant species for phytoremediation: Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) and Biological Transfer Coefficient (BCF) were calculated. The concentration of Pb in soils varied from 2-29 mg/kg, Zn from 28.82-172.56 mg/ kg, Cu from 8.88-306 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in plant shoots varied from 1.0 to 39 mg/kg, Zn from 17.25 to 194.03 mg/kg, Cu from 0.65 to 171.83 mg/kg. The concentration of Pb in roots of plant varied 1-43 mg/kg, Zn from 3.34-116.16 mg/kg, Cu from 3.35- 416.89 mg/kg. Brachiaria raptans and Malvastrum coromandelianum were found most suitable for phytostabilization of sites contaminated with Pb and Cu (BCF= 18 and 9.12). Considering the BAC values

1925-1933 Download
21
MAIZE RESPONSE TO TIME AND RATE OF NITROGEN APPLICATION
HAFIZ MOHKUM HAMMAD1*, ASHFAQ AHMAD1, AFTAB WAJID1 AND JAVAID AKHTER2

MAIZE RESPONSE TO TIME AND RATE OF NITROGEN APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
To find out effective use of nitrogen (N) in autumn planted maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid, a field experiment was conducted during 2009 at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Three N split application timings depending upon various development stages were kept in main plots and five rates of N; N1 (100 kg ha-1), N2 (150 kg ha-1), N3 (200 kg ha-1), N4 (250 kg ha-1) and N5 (300 kg ha-1) were randomized in sub plots. Results revealed that maximum plant growth, number of kernels per cob (419) and grain yield (8.27 t ha-1) were recorded in N4 treatment. Contrary maximum days to maturity (103.3 days) and biological yield (16.56 t ha-1) were recorded in N5 treatment. Based on the results, it was concluded that application of N in three split (at V2, V16 and R1 stage) @ 250 kg ha-1 can be recommended for achieving optimum grain yield under semi arid environment of Pakistan.

1935-1942 Download
22
IMPACT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT UNDER IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEM
KHALID NAWAB1*, AMANULLAH2, PAIGHAM SHAH2, ABDUR RAB4, MUHAMMAD ARIF2, M. AZIM KHAN3, ABDUL MATEEN4 AND FAZAL MUNSIF2

IMPACT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT UNDER IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEM
ABSTRACT:
Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m2. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture.

1943-1947 Download
23
EFFECT OF NEODYMIUM ION ON MITOCHONDRIAL METABOLISM OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA)
QIMING MEI1

EFFECT OF NEODYMIUM ION ON MITOCHONDRIAL METABOLISM OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA)
ABSTRACT:
2, RONG XIE3, XICHANG ZHOU2, CHENGYUAN LIU3, YINGGUO ZHU1,

1949-1952 Download
24
RESPONSE OF SESAME TO POPULATION DENSITIES AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON NEWLY RECLAIMED SANDY SOILS
IJAZ RASOOL NOORKA1, S.I. HAFIZ2 AND M. A. S. EL-BRAMAWY2

RESPONSE OF SESAME TO POPULATION DENSITIES AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON NEWLY RECLAIMED SANDY SOILS
ABSTRACT:
Two field experiments were conducted at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University at Ismailia during 2008 and 2009 seasons to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization and planting density on growth , yield, its attributes as well as seed quality of new sesame variety (Taka 2 cv.). On newly reclaimed sandy soils of Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, experimental design in split plots form with four replications was used. Four levels of nitrogen fertilization 55

1953-1958 Download
25
RESPONSE OF CANDIDATE WHEAT VARIETY ‘NIA-8/7’ TO DIFFERENT LEVELS/RATIOS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
MUHAMMAD YOUSUF MEMON, PARVEZ KHAN*, MUHAMMAD IMTIAZ, JAVAID AHMED SHAH AND NIZAMUDDIN DEPAR

RESPONSE OF CANDIDATE WHEAT VARIETY ‘NIA-8/7’ TO DIFFERENT LEVELS/RATIOS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
ABSTRACT:
Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years (2007-08 and 2008-09) to evaluate the response of a candidate wheat variety NIA-8/7 to different ratios of nitrogen and phosphorus. Four levels of N (0

1959-1963 Download
26
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF AUTUMN PLANTED SUGARCANE TO SOIL MOISTURE DEPLETION AND PLANTING GEOMETRY ON DIFFERENT SOILS UNDER ARID CONDITIONS
EJAZ AHMED KHAN1, ABDUL GAFFAR SAGOO2 AND GUL HASSAN3

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF AUTUMN PLANTED SUGARCANE TO SOIL MOISTURE DEPLETION AND PLANTING GEOMETRY ON DIFFERENT SOILS UNDER ARID CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was conducted on autumn planted sugarcane cv. HSF 240 at two locations, i.e., Research Area at Rakh Bibi Campus Gomal University, Dara Ismail Khan on Silty clay soil and Main Line Lower Land Reclamation Research Station, Chak No 37 TDA (Thal Development Authority) Bhakkar, Pakistan on sandy loam soil during 2003-04 and 2004-05. The experiment was laid out according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a split plot arrangement having four replications. There were four available soil moisture depletion levels (ASMDL) including ASMDL1 -20%, ASMDL2 -40%, ASMDL3 - 60% and ASMDL4 -80%, which were kept in main plots and four planting patterns viz. G1 -60 cm, G2 -75 cm spaced single row planting patterns and G3 -30/90, G4 -30/120 cm spaced paired row strip planting pattern, assigned to the sub plots having net subplot size of 24 m2. Analysis of pooled data of both locations showed that Leaf area index (LAI), Leaf area duration (LAD), Crop growth rate (CGR) and Net assimilation rate (NAR) were significantly affected by ASMDL and were maximum at 40% ASMD level followed by 60%

1965-1969 Download
27
SUSTAINABLE COTTON PRODUCTION AND WATER ECONOMY THROUGH DIFFERENT PLANTING METHODS AND MULCHING TECHNIQUES
HAFIZ MUHAMMAD NASRULLAH1*, MUHAMMAD BISMILLAH KHAN2, RIAZ AHMAD3, SAGHIR AHMAD4, MAMOONA HANIF4 AND WAJAD NAZEER4

SUSTAINABLE COTTON PRODUCTION AND WATER ECONOMY THROUGH DIFFERENT PLANTING METHODS AND MULCHING TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
Planting methods and mulching techniques are important factors which affect crop growth, development and yield by conserving soil and plant moisture. A multifactorial experiment was conducted to study the water economy involving different planting methods and mulching techniques in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for two consecutive years (2004 and 2005) at the Agronomic Research Station, Khanewal. Two moisture stress tolerant cotton varieties (CIM-473 and CIM-499) were planted using four different planting methods i.e. 70cm spaced single row planting

1971-1983 Download
28
ASSESSMENT OF ADAPTABILITY AND STABILITY OF GRAIN YIELD IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER DIFFERENT SOWING TIMES IN PUNJAB
JAVED ANWAR*, MUJAHID HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD AMJAD ALI, MAKHDOOM HUSSAIN, MUHAMMAD SALEEM, GHULAM MAHBOOB SUBHANI, JAVED AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD MUNIR

ASSESSMENT OF ADAPTABILITY AND STABILITY OF GRAIN YIELD IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER DIFFERENT SOWING TIMES IN PUNJAB
ABSTRACT:
Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments.

1985-1993 Download
29
GROWTH, WATER STATUS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS AS AFFECTED BY SUPPLIED NITROGEN FORM AND DROUGHT STRESS
ZHANG LI XIN1*, GAO MEI1, LI SHIQING2, LI SHENGXIU3 AND LIANG ZONGSUO1

GROWTH, WATER STATUS AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN TWO MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) CULTIVARS AS AFFECTED BY SUPPLIED NITROGEN FORM AND DROUGHT STRESS
ABSTRACT:
Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen form on plant growth, water status and photosynthetic characteristics under integrated root-zone drought stress (IR-DS) and non drought conditions (non-DS) with two hybrids of maize cultivars Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Jundan 20(JD20). On the 12th day of IR-DS, dry matter (DM) of total plant, shoot and root, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll (Chl.) content, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) of both cultivars in all N forms treatments as well as intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) except NH4-treatment were significantly decreased. However, lower DM production, RWC and PN as well as drought index (DI) were observed for JD20 than ZD958, thereby the later could be considered as a drought tolerance cultivar comparatively. By comparison with sole ammonium (NH4+), sole nitrate (NO3-) and the mixture of NH4+ and NO3- both obviously increased DM of total plant, shoot and root, RWC, PN and Chl. content while decreased gs, E and Ci of both cultivars under drought. The effects of NO3--supplied were superior than NH4++NO3--supplied in the above responses. These impacts were more predominant in ZD958 than JD20. Further analysis of variation indicated that the impact of N form treatment on most parameters measured except root DM were, in general, less than water regime while higher than cultivar. It is, therefore, concluded that an increase of ratio of NO3- to NH4+ in nutrition solution could lead to an enhancement in leaf RWC and photosynthesis of both cultivars subjected to IR-DS, then result in biomass increase, thus alleviate of damage from drought due to their obvious drought-resistance function based on its nutritive role, especially for a drought tolerant cultivar.

1995-2001 Download
30
STUDY OF HEAVY TRACE METALS IN SOME MEDICINAL–HERBAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
MANZOOR IQBAL KHATTAK1* AND MAHMOOD IQBAL KHATTAK2

STUDY OF HEAVY TRACE METALS IN SOME MEDICINAL–HERBAL PLANTS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu & Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported.

2003-2009 Download
31
CORRELATION BETWEEN HUMID THERMAL RATIO AND EPIDEMICS OF CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT OF PEANUT IN POTHWAR
MUHAMMAD IJAZ1*, M.I. HAQUE2, C.A. RAUF, FAYYAZ-UL-HASSAN2, ABID RIAZ2 AND S.M. MUGHAL2

CORRELATION BETWEEN HUMID THERMAL RATIO AND EPIDEMICS OF CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT OF PEANUT IN POTHWAR
ABSTRACT:
The epidemic of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) frequently led to yield losses on unsprayed peanuts in Pakistan. During 3 successive years of field trials under medium rainfall conditions of Pothwar at Chakwal, it was observed that CLS incidence epidemic differed significantly during crop seasons. Genotypes exhibited significantly different disease response to CLS incidence provided suitable environmental conditions prevailed during crop growth cycle. Among crop seasons, year 2003 was most conducive due to frequent and early rains making humid thermal ratio (HTR) quite favorable for most of the time for disease initiation and development resulting in higher values of AUDPCs and incidence. Six fortnights from July to September were the most critical and risky for crop as the HTR values 2.01 to 3.84 are most likely conducive for significant increase in CLS incidence.

2011-2016 Download
32
VARIATION IN THE RESISTANCE OF SOME FABA BEAN GENOTYPES TO OROBANCHE CRENATA
ZOUHAIER ABBES*, FADHEL SELLAMI, MOEZ AMRI AND MOHAMED KHARRAT

VARIATION IN THE RESISTANCE OF SOME FABA BEAN GENOTYPES TO OROBANCHE CRENATA
ABSTRACT:
Four faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were tested for their reaction to Orobanche crenata Forsk., infestation. Evaluation was carried out for two cropping seasons at the Ariana research station, Tunisia in a field naturally infested with O. crenata and in pot experiments. At maturity, the genotypes Baraca, Giza429 and the breeding line Bader carried 2-6 times less of number of emerged parasites and 3-7 less of dry weight of emerged parasites than the susceptible cv. Badï. The average yield observed for the three resistant genotypes was two to four-fold higher than the one observed for the susceptible genotype. These resistant genotypes seemed to flower earlier and to show late orobanche establishment which gave them an advantage over the parasite. The genotype Bader, which was selected for its resistance to O. foetida, was resistant to O. crenata, showing that selecting for O. foetida resistance can protect against O. crenata infection. Besides, the two genotypes Baraca and Giza429 selected for their resistance to O. crenata in Spain and Egypt respectively, do not present tubercle necrosis on their roots, showing that they do not respond similarly to the Tunisian population of O. crenata. These partially resistant genotypes may provide breeders with additional sources of resistance to O. crenata, and can form appropriate material for an integrated control package.

2017-2021 Download
33
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF DIFFERENT AUBERGINE CULTIVARS AND FRUIT INFESTATION BY LEUCINODES ORBONALIS GUENEE
HUMAYUN JAVED1*, ATA-UL-MOHSIN1, MUHAMMAD ASLAM1, MUHAMMAD NAEEM1, MUHAMMAD AMJAD2 AND TARIQ MAHMOOD3

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF DIFFERENT AUBERGINE CULTIVARS AND FRUIT INFESTATION BY LEUCINODES ORBONALIS GUENEE
ABSTRACT:
Response of different aubergine cultivars against brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee.) was evaluated at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad during 2007-08 and 2008-09. The results reflected different levels of infestation in all cultivars by the pest. Cultivar Naeelam showed maximum fruit infestation (58.60 and 48.09%) followed by Black long (47.93 and 33.31%), while minimum was observed in Nirala with 24.75 and 21.57% fruit infestation during 2007-08 and 2008-09, respectively. Similarly, shoot infestation was found maximum in Naeelam (43.15 and 33.75%) followed by Kanha-091 (37.72 and 28.73 %) and Nirala was found to be least attacked by the pest showing 19.27 and 15.81% shoot infestation during 2007-08 and 2008-09, respectively. The correlation of different morphological plant characters with fruit infestation indicated very strong and negative correlation between fruit infestation and leaf trichomes, stem thickness and stem hair density. A negatively significant correlation was found between fruit infestation and plant height (r = – 0.716), crown hair density (r = – 0.672) while the correlations of leaf hair density (r = – 0.623), and leaf area (r = – 0.613), was also significant and negative but not so strong. There was positive correlation with fruit yield (q/acre) and positive and non significant correlation with number of primary branches/plant with r-value 0.661and 0.319, respectively.

2023-2028 Download
34
INTER-VARIETAL VARIATION IN THE COMPOSITION OF SEEDS AND SEED OILS FROM WINTER MELON [BENINCASA HISPIDA (THUNB.) COGN.] FRUIT
FAROOQ ANWAR1,2, NOR AZIZAH MOHAMMAD1, FATIMAH OTHMAN1, NAZAMID SAARI1*

INTER-VARIETAL VARIATION IN THE COMPOSITION OF SEEDS AND SEED OILS FROM WINTER MELON [BENINCASA HISPIDA (THUNB.) COGN.] FRUIT
ABSTRACT:
Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), locally known as Kundur, is a vegetable crop, popular, especially among Asian communities both for nutritional and medicinal attributes. In the present work, physicochemical properties of seeds and the extracted seed oils were examined and compared among three cultivars namely round, oval and hybrid of winter melon. The seeds from round, oval and hybrid fruits, exhibited protein, fiber and ash contents 28.18-42.03

2029-2037 Download
35
INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) III. FREQUENCY OF MORPHOLOGICAL MUTATIONS
TARIQ MAHMUD SHAH1*, BABAR MANZOOR ATTA1, JAVED IQBAL MIRZA2 AND MUHAMMAD AHSANUL HAQ1

INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY IN CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) III. FREQUENCY OF MORPHOLOGICAL MUTATIONS
ABSTRACT:
A comparative study for frequency of morphological mutations induced by physical (gamma rays) and chemical (EMS) mutagens in M2 population was conducted in two desi (Pb2000, C44), one each of kabuli (Pb1) and desi x kabuli introgression genotypes (CH 40/91) of chickpea. In M2 population, about 63 different types of morphological mutations in different parts of the plants, such as branching pattern, stem structure, growth habit, foliage type, plant height, pod and seed size, foliage color, flowering behavior and maturity was observed. The highest frequency of morphological mutations was observed in 300 Gy gamma irradiation (4.11%) of CH40/91 followed by 0.4% EMS (2.08%) of desi genotype C44. The overall frequency of mutations in physical mutagen was high in CH40/91 (2.69%) followed by Pb2000 (1.38%), C44 (1.02%) and Pb-1 (0.27%). The overall frequency of morphological mutations in chemical mutagen was very low in Pb2000 (0.45%) followed by Pb-1 (0.78%), C44 (1.53%) and CH40/91 (1.90%) as compared to physical mutagens. Overall frequency of morphological mutations in M2 population also indicated maximum mutability (2.30%) in introgression genotype (CH40/91) followed by desi genotype C44 (1.28%) and Pb2000 (0.91%), whereas kabuli type had lowest mutation rate (0.52%). The significant higher morphological as well as chlorophyll frequency of CH40/91 as compared to other three genotypes could be due to the diverse genetic nature. The gamma rays and EMS treatments differ in their mutation spectra/frequency.

2039-2043 Download
36
IN VITRO GERMINATION OF HYBRID EMBRYOS FROM INTERPLOIDAL CROSSES OF CITRUS
ASIM MEHMOOD1, MUHAMMAD JAFAR JASKANI1*, YASAR SAJJAD1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2 AND ZAHOOR HUSSAIN3

IN VITRO GERMINATION OF HYBRID EMBRYOS FROM INTERPLOIDAL CROSSES OF CITRUS
ABSTRACT:
Interploid crosses between Feutrell’s early (2x), Kinnow mandarin (2x), Succari sweet orange (2x) and Kinnow (4x) were made for the production of triploid hybrids. Maximum fruit set (100%) was observed between crosses of Kinnow (2x) X Kinnow (4x) and maximum June drop (95.5%) was noted when diploid Succari as female parent was crossed with tetraploid Kinnow. The hybrid previous termfruitsnext term harvested after 12–14 weeks or 7 months after pollination produced many underdeveloped and few developed previous termseeds;next term however, tetraploid Kinnow as previous termseednext term parent yielded more developed previous termseedsnext term per previous termfruit. Immature previous termembryos of seedsnext term harvested 12–14 weeks after pollination were cultured In vitro on MS medium supplemented with adenine sulphate (0.25 g l−1), malt extract (0.5 g l−1) and sucrose (50 g l−1). Maximum previous termgerminationnext term (58.6%) of hybrid previous termembryosnext term from developed previous termseedsnext term was obtained in 4x X 2xprevious termcross of Kinnow strains.

2045-2049 Download
37
DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES OF ONION AND GARLIC AGAINST PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
G. OUZOUNIDOU1, A. GIANNAKOULA2, M. ASFI1AND I. ILIAS2

DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES OF ONION AND GARLIC AGAINST PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
ABSTRACT:
The effects of Gibberellic acid-GA3, Prohexadione-Calcium, and Ethephon pre-harvest application on yield, biomass production, photosynthetic function, lipid peroxidation and quality characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants were investigated. Shoot length and biomass of onion and garlic, expressed either in fresh or dry weight, increased significantly under GA3, while a progressive decrease under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon occurred. Higher MDA (lipid peroxidation) values were recorded after Prohex-Ca and Ethephon supply on onion and garlic plants; it seems that GA3 treatment prevents lipid peroxidation as measured with the help of the TBARS method. Plants treated with Prohex-Ca and Ethephon revealed higher peroxidase activity compared to control and GA3 treated plants. Considering the results of MDA content and peroxidase activities it can be assumed that GA3 treated plants are slightly protected from the natural course of oxidative stress, which occurs during ageing as observed for control samples. The fluctuations of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters represent a general decline in chloroplasts function after plant growth regulators exposure, whereas in combination to the suppressed chlorophyll content, structural malformations of photosystems may also occur. The production of ascorbic acid, glucose and fructose content seems to be enhanced under GA3 in both species, while their values were depressed under Prohex-Ca and Ethephon. Overall, only GA3 supply leads to a vigorous onion and garlic growth and yield.

2051-2057 Download
38
REQUIREMENT OF PRO-PEPTIDE IN PROPER FOLDING OF SUBTILISIN-LIKE SERINE PROTEASE TK0076
NOUMAN RASOOL, NAEEM RASHID*, MUHAMMAD ARSHAD JAVED AND MUHAMMAD SALEEM HAIDER

REQUIREMENT OF PRO-PEPTIDE IN PROPER FOLDING OF SUBTILISIN-LIKE SERINE PROTEASE TK0076
ABSTRACT:
Subtilisin-like proteases are characterized by a catalytic triad of the three amino acids Asp His and Ser. Tk0076 is a subtilisin-like serine protease originated from Thermococcus kodakaraensis. Regions corresponding to signal-peptide, pro-peptide and the mature protein were predicted by homology modeling. Homology comparison revealed that Asp215, His247 and Ser424 constitute the catalytic triad of the protein. Gene encoding Tk0076 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced in the soluble form when the gene contained the sequence corresponding to the pro-peptide whereas it was produced in the insoluble form without the sequence corresponding to pro-peptide under the same expression system. Attempts to refold the protein properly in the absence of pro-peptide were unsuccessful indicating that pro-peptide is essential for proper folding of Tk0076.

2059-2065 Download
39
TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF DIATOMS
NAFISA SHOAIB, PIRZADA JAMAL AHMED SIDDIQUI*, AMJAD ALI, ZAIB-UN-NISA BURHAN AND SEEMA SHAFIQUE

TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF DIATOMS
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan being an agricultural country, a large amount of pesticides are used, including organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. These pesticides are released through rivers and other tributeries into the coastal environment, thus posing a contiuous threat to marine organisms. In the present study two species of diatoms Amphora and Navicula were selected for the assessment of impact of organphosphate and pyrethroid toxicity on these primary producers. The study shows that rate of photosynthesis was inhibited in both Amphora and Navicula species exposed to pesticide. The acute toxicity of pesticide was determined by measuring IC50 of the test organisms. IC50 calculated for diatom species depicts that different pesticides had variable effects on the photosynthesis of microalgae. High sensitivity of marine organisms is alarming as it may have implications on the marine ecosystem and fisheries. The results are also useful in setting control limits for the release of these chemicals in nature.

2067-2069 Download
40
YIELD STABILITY IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES
MUHAMMAD AFZAL ARAIN1, MAHBOOB ALI SIAL1, M. ARIF RAJPUT1 AND AMEER A. MIRBAHAR2

YIELD STABILITY IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Stability for grain yield performance and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction was studied in twelve (nine advance genotypes and 3 checks) wheat genotypes evaluated at various locations having different agro-climatic conditions in Sindh province of Pakistan over two years. The combined and individual analysis of variance for locations and years was conducted. Pooled analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p<0.01) difference for genotypes, environments and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. A joint regression analysis was applied to grain yield data to estimate the stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), s.e. (b) and deviation from regression coefficients (S2d) for each genotype. Genotype MSH-14 produced the highest mean yield (5090 kg/ha) in all environments averaged for two years, and had regression coefficient (b) close to unity (0.86) and S2d close to zero (0.7923). This indicated wide adaptation and stability of performance of MSH-14 in all environments. Other high yielding genotypes MSH-03 and MSH-05 ranked 2nd and 3rd showing regression coefficient (b=0.78 and 0.69 respectively) and deviation from regression (S2d= 1.076 and 1.29 respectively) indicating specific adaptability of these genotypes to harsh (un favorable) environments. These findings suggested that both the genotypes could be used as stress tolerant genotypes under stressed environments (such as drought, heat and salinity stress).

2071-2074 Download
41
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF NURYT-NATIONAL UNIFORM RAPE SEED YIELD TRIAL AND BRASSICA NAPUS VARIETIES USING RAPD MARKERS AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
JEHAN BAKHT1, AMNA FAREED1, MOHAMMAD SHAFI2, ZAHOOR AHMAD SWATI1

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF NURYT-NATIONAL UNIFORM RAPE SEED YIELD TRIAL AND BRASSICA NAPUS VARIETIES USING RAPD MARKERS AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
In Pakistan, Brassica is the second most important source of oil after cotton. Seventeen NURYT (National Uniform Rape Seed Yield Trial) lines and 5 Brassica napus varieties were assessed through RAPD primers and biochemical assays. Seven different Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) were employed during the present study. A total of 30 RAPD bands were scored by these primers. Size of the scorable fragments ranged from approximately 250 to 2000 bp. Diversity index was estimated to be 42%. Mean genetic distance estimates ranged between 0.10 and 1.00. For the assessment of various biochemical parameters, Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used. Oil content ranged from 38.30 to 49% and protein content from 19.80 to 29.10% among the 22 genotypes. Maximum protein content was assayed in genotype RBN 3046 while minimum in Hyola 405. Glucosinolates ranged between 2 and 84% for genotype CRH 60/08 and CRH05/08 showing the maximum and minimum values respectively. Oleic acid (52 to 72.5%), linolenic acid (7.07 and 9.90%) and erucic acid content (9.57 to 38.3%) was also recorded during the present study.

2075-2081 Download
42
NITROGEN EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MULTAN
WAJID NASIM1

NITROGEN EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MULTAN
ABSTRACT:
2*, ASHFAQ AHMAD1, AFTAB WAJID1, JAVAID AKHTAR3 AND DILBAUGH MUHAMMAD4

2083-2092 Download
43
SUSTAINING RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMES II. EFFECT OF GREEN MANURE LEGUMES AND N FERTILIZER ON WHEAT YIELD
ZAHIR SHAH1*, S. RASHID AHMAD2, HIDAYAT UR RAHMAN3 AND M.Z. SHAH

SUSTAINING RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF LEGUMES II. EFFECT OF GREEN MANURE LEGUMES AND N FERTILIZER ON WHEAT YIELD
ABSTRACT:
This study was undertaken to assess the effect of 6 green manure legumes viz., mungbean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), soybean (Glycine max), sesbania (Sesbania rostrata), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and N fertilizer on wheat yield in rice-wheat system for three years (2001/02-2003/04) at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. The grain, straw and N yields of wheat were significantly greater in the green manure legumes than in the fallow-based rice-wheat rotation during all the three years. The average improvement gained from the green manure legumes relative to fallow-based cropping, was 18.1% for grain yield

2093-2097 Download
44
MORPHOLOGY AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN GROWN ON ALLOPHANIC SOIL AS INFLUENCED BY SYNTHETIC ZEOLITE APPLICATION
AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, H. KHAN1, R. KHAN1, S. NIGAR2, B. SAEED1, H. GUL1, AMANULLAH1, S.WAHAB3, A.MUHAMMAD3, M. AYUB3, N. MATSUE4 AND T. HENMI4

MORPHOLOGY AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN GROWN ON ALLOPHANIC SOIL AS INFLUENCED BY SYNTHETIC ZEOLITE APPLICATION
ABSTRACT:
Our objective was to assess the effect of synthetic zeolite application on morphology, yield and yield components of soybean grown on allophanic soils. A greenhouse experiment was carried out using three zeolite levels and three soils (two allophanic and one paddy) with two soybean cultivars. One determinate (Enrei, [MG] 1V) and indeterminate cultivar (Harosoy [MG] 11) were grown in pots on April 20th and harvested on 15th September at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan during 2007. Zeolite levels of 0

2099-2107 Download
45
POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF TWO CULTIVATED SPECIES (JASMINUM SAMBUC (L.) AIT. AND NYCANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS L.) OF FAMILY OLEACEAE
ANJUM PERVEEN1 AND GHULAM RASOOL SARWAR2

POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY OF TWO CULTIVATED SPECIES (JASMINUM SAMBUC (L.) AIT. AND NYCANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS L.) OF FAMILY OLEACEAE
ABSTRACT:
Pollen germination and viability of two species viz., Jasminum sambuc (L.) Ait., and Nycanthes arbor-tristis L. of the family Oleaceae were examined . Viability was determined on the basis of germination ability of pollen on sucrose medium with boric acid solution up to 48 weeks. Stored pollen were germinated under different conditions (+4°C), (-20°C, -30°C), (-60°C), vacuum chamber and organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature -60°C showed better germination as compared to pollen stored at +4°C and fresh. Among two species Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. showed much better germination percentage at -60°C ( 40.60% ) whereas, Nycanthes arbor-tristis L., showed 37.0% germination after 48 weeks of storage. Pollen stored over silica jel under vacuum of both the species showed good germination as compared to organic solvents.

2109-2112 Download
46
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ALLELOCHEMICALS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF HORSE PURSLANE
MUHAMMAD SAEED*, MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ AND BAKHTIAR GUL

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ALLELOCHEMICALS ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF HORSE PURSLANE
ABSTRACT:
An experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of various allelopathic plants in Weed Science Laboratory Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar in 2010. The trial was replicated three times with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) having seven treatments i.e., Control (Tape water) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum L.), parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), datura (Datura alba L.), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camadulensis L.). Horse purslane seed germination was recorded for 15 days regularly and after 15 days root and shoot length data was recorded. The results revealed that Helianthus annuus water extract reduced germination (10.31%), shoot length (0.25 cm) and root length (0.28 cm) of horse purslane as compared to control which showed germination (86.72%), shoot length (1.81 cm) and root length (2.43 cm). The degree of percent germination inhibition of horse purslane was in the order of Helianthus annuus> Parthenium hysterophorus> Datura alba> Sorghum bicolor> Eucalyptus camadulensis> Trianthema portulacastrum> Control.

2113-2114 Download
47
EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS SUPPLY OF BORON ON NODULE DEVELOPMENT IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.)
FERHAT MEHMOOD1, MUHAMMAD QASIM2*, ZAHEER UD DIN KHAN1 AND SYED HAMMAD RAZA2

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS SUPPLY OF BORON ON NODULE DEVELOPMENT IN PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.)
ABSTRACT:
Exogenous supply of boron was evaluated on the seeds of Pisum sativum L. inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum and grown in aqua-culture. The liquid nutrition medium contained six boron concentrations (control

2115-2118 Download
48
CLASSIFICATION OF COTTON AND SUGARCANE PLANTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SPECTRAL BEHAVIOR
MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD SHIFA1, M. SHAHID NAWEED2, MUHAMMAD OMAR2, M. ZEESHAN JHANDIR2 AND TANVEER AHMED3

CLASSIFICATION OF COTTON AND SUGARCANE PLANTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SPECTRAL BEHAVIOR
ABSTRACT:
The study is about the classification of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) crops based on spectral behavior of their plants. The hand held ground based remote sensing optical Multispectral Radiometer MSR5 has been used for this purpose. MSR5 scans a scene and gives its digital representation in 5 separate spectral bands compatible with Landsat satellite images, so the study is also applicable to Landsat images. To judge the discrimination power of five spectral bands, used as features to represent the scenes, K-means algorithm is used for unsupervised clustering of reflectance sample data set. Computational and visualization results of clustering through K-means show that MSR5 scans are good candidates for classification purpose. Supervised classification is achieved using K-nn algorithm, and 98% accurate results of classification are achieved. Choice of MSR5 for crop classification is good for two reasons: the results are accurate and the technique is an efficient way to represent an image with only five real values covering a 1.5 square meter.

2119-2125 Download
49
IDENTIFICATION OF FIBERS OF WOODY AND NON-WOODY PLANT SPECIES IN PULP AND PAPERS
VAHIDREZA SAFDARI1*, MOHAMMAD REZA NIKSERESHT SIGARODY1 AND MOINUDDIN AHMED2

IDENTIFICATION OF FIBERS OF WOODY AND NON-WOODY PLANT SPECIES IN PULP AND PAPERS
ABSTRACT:
Now a days the paper factories, which because of environmental issues and lack of forest sources, use waste papers, need to identify fibers in raw materials to improve quality of recycled papers. In order to evaluate feasibility of fibers identification, papers of 9 Iranian important factories (12 different papers) were sampled and the frequency of identified species in papers was recorded in many micro- slides, prepared from the papers according to ISO 9184-1 (Anon.

2127-2133 Download
50
INFLUENCE OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS
RASHAD MUKHTAR BALAL1*, M. YASIN ASHRAF2*, MUHAMMAD MUMTAZ KHAN3, MUHAMMAD JAFAR JASKANI3 AND MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ4

INFLUENCE OF SALT STRESS ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS
ABSTRACT:
Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in agriculture worldwide which affects plant morpho-physiology and ultimately leads to reduction in yield. To assess the effect of salinity on some physio-biochemical parameters in plants of ten different citrus rootstocks, an experiment was performed under controlled saline conditions. Plants were subjected to four salt treatments i.e. 0 (control), 30, 60 and 90 mM NaCl for 90 days in sand culture. In response to salt stress, the physiological responses were measured. Salinity affected all of the parameters under study. The high salt concentrations caused a great reduction in growth parameters such as fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. These changes were associated with decrease in chlorophyll contents in leaves. With the increase in salinity level, the proline and sugar contents were increased, and it was concluded that these osmolytes play a key role in generating tolerance against salt stress.

2135-2141 Download
51
PERFORMANCE OF HIGH YIELDING WHEAT AND BARLEY CULTIVARS UNDER MOISTURE STRESS
AMANULLAH1*, SHITAB KHAN1, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1, AMANULLAH JAN1, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1 AND KHALID NAWAB2,

PERFORMANCE OF HIGH YIELDING WHEAT AND BARLEY CULTIVARS UNDER MOISTURE STRESS
ABSTRACT:
The performance of six high yielding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and two barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars was studied under moisture stress. The experiment was undertaken at the Agricultural Research Farm of Agricultural University Peshawar, during winter 2003-04 on six wheat cultivars: BARS-II, Saleem-2000, Haider-2000, Kohat-2002, Suleman-96 and Takbeer and two barley cultivars: Sorab-96 and Awaran-2002. Sorab-96 produced the highest (296 m-2) number of tillers while Haider-2000 and BARS-II each produced the lowest (185 m-2) number of tillers. Plant height ranged between 77 (Sorab-96) to 117 cm (Sulaman-96). Takbeer produced the highest (73) number of grains spike-1 in comparison with Awaran-2002 which produced only 45 grains spike-1. The 1000-seed weight was highest (43.13 g) in Awaran-2002 and lowest in Kohat-2002 (23.21 g/1000-seeds). Saleem-2000 produced the highest grain yield (3875 kg ha-1) as well as biological yield (8833 kg ha-1). Both barely cultivars performed better, though Awaran-2002 displayed slightly superior results than Sorab-96. The harvest-index was maximum (53.7%) for Kohat-2002 and lowest for Sorab-96 (20.9%). The average grain yield of six wheat cultivars was higher than the average grain yield of the two barley cultivars. In this investigation, wheat cultivars: Saleem-2000, Haider-2000 and Kohat-2002, produced higher (3875, 3525, 3225 kg ha-1) grain yields, respectively and are therefore, recommended for cultivation in dryland areas.

2143-2145 Download
52
INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION OF TOTAL SEED PROTEIN IN WILD RICE GERMPLASM USING SDS-PAGE
SYED MEHAR ALI SHAH1, HIDAYAT-UR-RAHMAN1, FIDA MUHAMMAD ABBASI2, MALIK ASHIQ RABBANI3, IJAZ AHMAD KHAN4, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI5 AND ZAHIR SHAH6

INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION OF TOTAL SEED PROTEIN IN WILD RICE GERMPLASM USING SDS-PAGE
ABSTRACT:
Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present

2147-2152 Download
53
GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) GERMPLASM FROM PAKISTAN USING RAPD MARKERS
FAZAL AKBAR1, M. ASHIQ RABBANI2, M. SHAHID MASOOD2 AND ZABTA K. SHINWARI3*

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM L.) GERMPLASM FROM PAKISTAN USING RAPD MARKERS
ABSTRACT:
Genetic diversity among 20 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions was examined at DNA level by means of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ten primers used produced a total of 93 RAPD fragments, of which 70 (75%) were polymorphic. Each primer generated 5 to 17 amplified fragments with an average of 9.3 bands per primer. Based on pair-wise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, Nei and Li’s similarity coefficients were computed to assess the associations among the accessions. Pair-wise similarity indices varied from 0.65 to 0.91. A UPGMA cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities located most of the accessions far apart from one another, showing a high level of polymorphism. Genetically, all the genotypes were classified into two major groups and six subgroups or clusters. A single accession (22243) was relatively distinct from rest of the accessions and created independent cluster. In conclusion, even with the use of a limited set of primers, RAPD technique revealed a high level of genetic variation among sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of Pakistan. This high level of genetic diversity among the genotypes suggested that RAPD technique is valuable for sesame systematic, and can be helpful for the upholding of germplasm banks and the competent choice of parents in breeding programs.

2153-2160 Download
54
CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEROXIDASE GENE IN PHALAENOPSIS
XU CHUANJUN1,2, SUN XUZHUO1, CHEN DONGYIN1, LAI YANYAN1 AND LI LING1*

CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PEROXIDASE GENE IN PHALAENOPSIS
ABSTRACT:
Plant peroxidases oxidize phenolic substrates at the expense of H2O2 perform a significant function in responses to environmental stresses via the regulation of H2O2 in plants. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding a peroxidase was cloned and sequenced from leaf explants of Phalaenopsis by RT-PCR and RACE methods. The cDNA designated as PhPOD (GenBank accession No. FJ161978 ), is 1251 bp and contains a 1041 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a 347 amino acid peroxidase precursor, with a 24 aa N-terminal signal peptide targeting to ndoplasmic reticulum. The putative protein has a calculated molecular weight of 37.22 kDa and a calculated pI of 7.55. Sequence analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of PhPOD shares high identity with the reported POD protein sequences in database and is a typical Class III of POD family in plants. PhPOD possesses all active residues and two Ca2+ -binging sites present in peroxidase isoenzymes C, as well as six N-glycosylation sites. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of PhPOD was increased just before explant browning, and decreased with the aggravating of explants browning. These results indicate a possible function of PhPOD and provide an alternative way for controlling explant browning in tissue culture.

2161-2165 Download
55
DIVERSITY FOR SEEDLING VIGOR IN WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L. SUBSP. SPONTANEUM) GERMPLASM
KULDEEP TYAGI1+, MYOUNG RYOUL PARK1+, HYO JEONG LEE1, CHONG AE LEE2, SHAFIQ REHMAN3, BRIAN STEFFENSON4, KUI JAE LEE5, SONG JOONG YUN1,6*

DIVERSITY FOR SEEDLING VIGOR IN WILD BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L. SUBSP. SPONTANEUM) GERMPLASM
ABSTRACT:
Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a polyhouse and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1 (54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley.

2167-2173 Download
56
CLONING AND BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE GENE IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
HONGYING DUAN, XIAOSHENG DING, YONGANG YU, ZHIQIANG DUAN, YUNLONG HE, ZHIKUN DUAN AND YANQING ZHOU

CLONING AND BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE GENE IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA
ABSTRACT:
In this study, gene encoding Aspartate aminotransferase was cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana by RT-PCR, named F23N and its bioinformatics analysis was performed. It was found that there is one pyridoxal-phosphate attachment site at 250-270 (SYAKnmGLyGERIG) and other domains, furthermore, the transmembrane helices was not found in F23N, suggesting that F23N encoding product might not belong to membrane-protein. Combined with other Aspartate aminotransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana, they have obvious similarities, F23N and ASP4 take on 96% positives to each other, especially the similarity between F23N and Aspartate aminotransferase (BAE99790) reached 100%. In addition, the conserved genes encoding Aspartate aminotransferase from various species were analyzed by DNAMAN and found that F23N shows obvious comparability with those from some species in Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Furthermore, in the phylogenetic tree, these species analyzed were divided into two branches, one branch was composed of Protist, Eukaryotes, the other consist of Pan troglodytes and Tribolium castaneum, and Eukaryotes was further divided into two branches, which is mostly consistent with biological system.

2175-2182 Download
57
DETECTION OF SODIUM AZIDE-INDUCED MUTAGENICITY IN THE REGENERATED SHOOTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L., USING INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS) SEQUENCES OF nrDNA
FAHAD AL-QURAINY1, FAHAD M. AL-HEMAID1, SALIM KHAN*1, M. AJMAL ALI1, M. TARROUM1 AND M. ASHRAF1,2

DETECTION OF SODIUM AZIDE-INDUCED MUTAGENICITY IN THE REGENERATED SHOOTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L., USING INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS) SEQUENCES OF nrDNA
ABSTRACT:
Sodium azide (NaN3) is a well known chemical mutagen which can effectively cause point mutation in plant genome. The mutagenicity by this potential mutagen was assessed in the regenerated mutant shoots of Artemisia annua using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nrDNA. Insertions and/or deletions were detected in nrDNA-ITS sequences of all mutant shoots and compared with control ones using the ClustalX program. The regenerated shoots TS1 and TS2 had deleted bases, whereas TS3, TS4 and TS5 had insertions, because NaN3 replaced the cytosine (C) by thymine (T) (C→T) (shoots; TS1and TS4) and thymine (T) replaced by guanine (G) (T→G) (shoot; TS5), respectively. Artemisinin content was also measured in the regenerated six-week-old shoots of A. annua. All regenerated shoots had enhanced level of this compound as compared to that in the controls, being highest in the regenerated shoot TS3.

2183-2186 Download
58
MARINE CENTRIC DIATOM RHIZOSOLENIA BRIGHTWELL: ITS OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN NERITIC WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ASMA TABASSUM1* AND S.M. SAIFULLAH2

MARINE CENTRIC DIATOM RHIZOSOLENIA BRIGHTWELL: ITS OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN NERITIC WATERS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Seventeen taxa including 14 species and varieties of marine centric diatom of the genus Rhizosolenia Brightwell from the Northwest Arabian Sea shelf of Pakistan are described. Almost all species were recorded on both Balochistan and Indus Delta shelves. R. imbricata was the most common species and next were R. bergonii and R. striata. Maximum numbers of species were recorded in winter season characterized by upwelling due to surface cooling.

2187-2193 Download
59
PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS BS15, A LOCAL SOIL ISOLATE
SYED IQBAL ALAM1, MUHAMMAD KAMRAN1, MUHAMMAD SOHAIL2, AQEEL AHMAD2 AND SHAKEEL AHMED KHAN2

PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN LIKE INHIBITORY SUBSTANCE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS BS15, A LOCAL SOIL ISOLATE
ABSTRACT:
The aim of this study was to investigate the production of bacteriocin/bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) from Bacillus subtilis BS15, isolated from soil. The inhibitory substance was partially purified and characterized as BLIS with a molecular-weight of 3-5 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Its production was observed during the late exponential-phase or at the beginning of stationary-phase. It retained its activity up to 80°C and over a wide range of pH i.e., 3-9. It was found active against several clinically important bacterial species such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and also against the food-spoilage causing microbes, and may be considered as future food preservative.

2195-2199 Download
60
OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF LIPASES BY PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM (MBL 22) THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR*1, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, ZAIB UN NISA1, ASMA TARIQ1, M.N.KHALID1 AND RUKHSANA JABEEN2

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURAL CONDITIONS FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF LIPASES BY PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM (MBL 22) THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted in the Laboratory of Biotechnology and Mycology, Department of Botany, GC University, Faisalabad with the objective to study the production of extracellular lipases by Penicillium chrysogenum through solid- state fermentation (SSF). Penicillium chrysogenum was screened for the extracellular lipase production. The maximum extracellular lipase activity was obtained at 28oC after 72 h by using 1 mL inoculum level. 15g of mixed substrates (Almond+ Soybean+ Sunflower) was optimized for maximum extracellular lipase production. Agricultural by products, nitrogen sources and carbon sources were also optimized for the maximum production of enzyme. Maximum production of the extracellular lipase (64.77±0.155a U/mL) was obtained when olive oil was used as additional oil. Tween 80 and yeast extract were optimized as the best additional carbon and nitrogen sources respectively.

2201-2206 Download
61
ANATOMY OF DICTYOPTERIS DIVARICATA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI
ALIA ABBAS1* AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL2

ANATOMY OF DICTYOPTERIS DIVARICATA (PHAEOPHYCOTA) FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI
ABSTRACT:
Dictyopteris divaricata (Okamura) Okamura, a dichotomously branched brown alga of the family Dictyotaceae, was collected from Buleji, the coastal area of Karachi (Pakistan) during March 2008 and April 2010. It was investigated in detail for its morphology, anatomy and reproduction. Surface cells and internal structures of the thallus were studied in detail for the first time. This is the first detailed study of this species from the coast of Karachi.

2207-2210 Download
62
PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR A POTENT WILD AND MUTANT STRAIN OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR BIOSYNTHESIS OF AMYLOGLUCOSIDSAE
SHAZIA MALIK1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2*AND IKRAM UL HAQ1

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR A POTENT WILD AND MUTANT STRAIN OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR BIOSYNTHESIS OF AMYLOGLUCOSIDSAE
ABSTRACT:
The present study is concerned with the selection of a potent strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of the cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of amyloglucosidase. The cultural conditions were optimized for the enzyme production. Twenty percent (50/250ml flask) was found to be optimum volume of the medium. Optimum temperature was 30oC after 72 h of incubation, with the initial pH of the medium 5.0. 2% Starch with 1% glucose as an additional carbon source gave maximum amyloglucosidase production Addition of 0.3% ammonium sulphate in the fermentation medium increased the enzyme production while 2% spore inoculum showed best amyloglucosidase production.

2211-2219 Download
63
ROLE OF ULTRA VIOLET (UV-C) RADIATION IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON GROUNDNUT AND MUNG BEAN
ANUM SIDDIQUI, SHAHNAZ DAWAR, M. JAVED ZAKI AND NEELOFAR HAMID

ROLE OF ULTRA VIOLET (UV-C) RADIATION IN THE CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI ON GROUNDNUT AND MUNG BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were treated with ultra violet (UV-C) radiation for 0, 5

2221-2224 Download
64
STUDY OF FUNGI FROM THE CONTAMINATED SOILS OF PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURAL AREAS
SHAZIA IRAM1, IFTIKHAR AHMAD2, KAINAT NASIR1 AND SHAZIA AKHTAR1

STUDY OF FUNGI FROM THE CONTAMINATED SOILS OF PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURAL AREAS
ABSTRACT:
The micro-fungal flora of heavy metals contaminated peri-urban agricultural fields of Pakistan were investigated in terms of their diversity by soil serial dilution method. A total of 30 micro-fungi were isolated from 6 sampling sites. Of these isolates 24 belong to phylum Ascomycota, 3 to phylum Zygomycota

2225-2230 Download
65
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ALOE VERA GEL AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
UZMA SITARA, NUSRAT HASSAN AND JAWED NASEEM

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ALOE VERA GEL AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
ABSTRACT:
Aloe vera gel extracted from the Aloe vera leaves was evaluated for their antifungal activity @ 0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35% concentration against five plants pathogenic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawaiensis and Penicillum digitatum 0.35% concentration Aloe vera gel completely inhibited the growth of Drechslera hawaiensis and Alternaria alternata.

2231-2233 Download
66
TOTAL PHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS FROM CORIANDER, MINT AND PARSLEY GROWN IN SAUDI ARABIA
FAHAD AL-JUHAIMI AND KASHIF GHAFOOR*

TOTAL PHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAF AND STEM EXTRACTS FROM CORIANDER, MINT AND PARSLEY GROWN IN SAUDI ARABIA
ABSTRACT:
Leaves and stems of three different herbs from two different families were used to extract phenolic compounds and the bioactivity of the extracts was evaluated by using 1

2235-2237 Download
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