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Year 2022 , Volume  54, Issue 2
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1

A new species of Thymus (Lamiaceae) from central Anatolia (Turkey)


Dervis Ozturk, O. Koray Yaylaci, Onur Koyuncu, Okan Sezer, Kurtulus Ozgisi and Atila Ocak

A new species of Thymus (Lamiaceae) from central Anatolia (Turkey)


ABSTRACT:

A new species Thymus baseri (Lamiaceae) is described and illustrated from central Anatolia, Turkey. The new species grows on marble rocks and scree at 1640–1800 m. in central Anatolia (Eskişehir Province). A complete morphological description, detailed photographs are reported for the new species, including an identification key for related species. It’s distribution, habitat and ecology, etymology, conservation status and diagnostic morphological, and taxonomic features with familiar species are discussed in this paper. Additionally, pollen and nutlet micromorphological characteristics of T. baseri are examined and using SEM analyses. Observations regarding the IUCN Red List category and the ecology of the population are noted. The geographic distribution of the new species has been mapped.

 

253-259 Download
2

Exogenous application of salicylic acid enhances salt stress tolerance in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats)


Zeeshan Rehman, Abrar Hussain, Shanzay Saleem, Sheza Ayaz Khilji and Zahoor Ahmad Sajid

Exogenous application of salicylic acid enhances salt stress tolerance in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats)


ABSTRACT:

Salt stress is one of the key factors causing multifarious adverse effects on the growth, yield, and quality of crops worldwide. The present study was carried out to investigate the adverse effect of salinity (100 mM) in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus L.) and to evaluate the ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA: 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) against salinity stress under field conditions. Various morphological and biochemical parameters were analysed after 60 days of salt and salicylic acid treatment to pot-grown plants. It was observed that when Lemongrass plants were irrigated with salt (NaCl) it drastically affected all the tested parameters, however various SA concentrations significantly minimized the negative effects of salinity when applied exogenously in the form of foliar spray on leaves. Particularly by 0.5 mM salicylic acid, this increases shoot/root length by 17.40 and 3.43 cm as compared to control i.e., 14.02 and 2.60 cm, respectively under saline stress. Salicylic acid possibly reduced the damage caused by salt toxicity and ROS by increasing POD, CAT and SOD activities. This study hints at a possibility that SA (0.5 mM) can be effectively used for the mitigation of salt stress in lemongrass, however, further experimentation under field condition is necessary to evaluate and harness the potential benefit of SA for normal plant growth and yield

 

371-378 Download
3

Brassinolide alleviates glufosinate-ammonium toxicity by enhancing photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in Trichosanthes kirilowii


Yan Wu, Xiangxiang Wang, Xiaoyan Qiao and Qinghai Gao

Brassinolide alleviates glufosinate-ammonium toxicity by enhancing photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in Trichosanthes kirilowii


ABSTRACT:

This paper explored the alleviation of brassinolide (BR) to Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim cv. WanLou No.9 (WL9) seedlings under the stress of herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GA). The results showed that under GA stress, a reduction in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and light energy utilization rate of WL9 seedlings has occurred. In addition, a significant decline in the activities of nitrogen metabolism-related enzymes, such as nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT), were also observed. Furthermore, amino acid synthesis in the leaves was inhibited, resulting in a large accumulation of ammonium nitrogen. Application of BR, however, could significantly enhance chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and light energy utilization efficiency of WL9 seedlings under GA stress, besides promoting the key enzymatic activities of nitrogen metabolism. Among them, leaf NR and GS activities were 27.5 µgNaNO2·g-1FW·h-1 and 5.6 µmolGHA·g-1FW·min-1 respectively, which were 74.8% and 60.0% higher than that of GA treatment. In addition, BA promoted the synthesis of amino acids, and the ammonium nitrogen content in leaves was remarkably reduced. Application of BA alleviated the inhibition of GA on the growth of WL9 seedlings, which was 1.34 and 1.21 times higher than that of GA treatment in shoot and root respectively. In conclusion, GA reduced the light energy utilization efficiency and nitrogen metabolic capacity of WL9 seedlings, while application of BA could alleviate the toxicity of GA on light energy utilization and nitrogen metabolism of WL9 seedlings

379-385 Download
4

Foliar application of salicylic acid to alleviate the detrimental effects of drought in various genotypes of wheat (Triticuma estivium L.)


Muhammad Ali Khan, M.U. Shirazi, A. Shereen, M.A. Khan, S.M. Mujtaba, Asma, S. Khaskheli And S. Baloch

Foliar application of salicylic acid to alleviate the detrimental effects of drought in various genotypes of wheat (Triticuma estivium L.)


ABSTRACT:

Drought is a global problem, limiting world crop production seriously and current global climate change has made this situation worst. This study was designed to assess the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as a growth promoter to counteract the detrimental impacts of drought on five wheat (Triticum estivum L.) genotypes (NlA-Sarang, NlA-Sundar, NlA-Zarkhaiz, Khirman (check) and TD-1).Two concentrations of SA (0.7 and I .44m M) were used and the spray was done at vegetative stage.Water deficit was imposed as terminal drought i.e no irrigation was applied except soaking dose. Generally wheat genotypes showed differential responses at two levels of SA. Most of the genotypes had enhanced proline accumulation at both levels of SA in comparison with the control treatment of no spray of SA. The genotype NlA-Sunder exhibited highest increase of 264.26 fold and 271.08 fold at 0.7 mM and I .44 rnM respectively, indicating the potential of the genotype to manage with the drought environment. Osmotic potential (MPa) was generally decreased under drought environment with both spray of SA, however higher decrease (more -vevalues) in the O.P was observed at 0.7 mM SA as compared to I .44 mM SA. Potassium (K) accumulation was reduced under drought stress. However less decrease was observed in the genotypes at the level of 0.7 mM, while more accumulation of Potassium was observed at 1.44 mM under drought stress. Grain weight (g plant-1) was also seriously affected under drought. However the genotype NlA-Sarang (27.64 g plant-1) and TD-I (29.40 g plant-1) at 0.7 mM and NlA-Sarang (23.11 g plant-1) and Khirman (36.17 g plant-1) at 1.44 mM exhibited comparatively low reduction. It was concluded from this study that spray of SA alleviated the detrimental impacts of drought with genotypic variations as recorded

387-391 Download
5

Ameliorating detrimental effects of water deficit stress in maize by foliarally applied silicon and chitosan


Hafiza Samra Younas, Muhammad Abid and Muhammad Ashraf

Ameliorating detrimental effects of water deficit stress in maize by foliarally applied silicon and chitosan


ABSTRACT:

Water deficit stress is the most devastating abiotic stress to limit crop productivity, particularly in regions of semiarid to arid climate. Different strategies have been used to improve plant resistance to water deficit stress, however, addition of organic and inorganic substances might be more effective and environment friendly. Present study investigated the protective role of silicon (Si) and chitosan against water deficit stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Experimental plan consisted of two soil moisture levels i.e. well-watered (100% field capacity, FC) and water deficit stress (50% FC), two levels of Si (0 and 2 mM) and two levels of chitosan (0 and 200 mg L-1), and replicated thrice. Foliar application of Si and chitosan was made for three times i.e. 10, 20 and 30 days after germination. Water deficit stress reduced the shoot length by 30%, shoot fresh weight 46%, shoot dry weight 54%, and root length 40%, root fresh weight 54% and root dry weight 74% as compared to well-watered condition. Foliar applied Si and chitosan either alone or in combination stimulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes with a consequent improvement of 30% in chlorophyll-a and 40% in chlorophyll-b, 33% membrane stability index (MSI), 30% relative water content (RWC) and 46% soluble protein with Si+chitosan under water deficit stress compared to well-watered plants without Si+chitosan. In conclusion, foliar application of Si and chitosan was found to be effective for improving plant adaptation to water deficit stress, where maximum improvement was recorded with the integrated use of Si and chitosan

393-400 Download
6

Evaluation of Indole-3-acetic acid deficient mutants of Pseudomonas moraviensis and its role in mitigation of salt stress in Cicer Arietinum L.


Sadia Zafar, Asghari Bano and Tamoor Ul Hassan

Evaluation of Indole-3-acetic acid deficient mutants of Pseudomonas moraviensis and its role in mitigation of salt stress in Cicer Arietinum L.


ABSTRACT:

Present investigation aims to characterize Pseudomonas moraviensis (wild type) and its IAA-deficient mutants and further to evaluate their role on physiology of chickpea plants (Cicer arietinum L.) under induced salt stress. Extracellular and whole cell protein contents as well as proline production in the M9 media and M9 media containing 4% NaCl of wild type of P. moraviensis and its mutants were determined. The functional group of PGPR both wild type and mutants were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR) of the culture. A significant increase (62-293%) was found in most of the mutants in the extracellular protein and whole cell protein (45-304%) than that of wild type. P. moraviensis wild type and its mutants had increase in the salt tolerance potential with time up to 75 mM NaCl treatments. Mutants exhibited higher tolerance to NaCl applied. Mutants convert tryptophan to IAA, 61-92% lower than that of the wild type. The plants inoculated with wild type showed increased chlorophyll, protein contents, proline contents and enhanced the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Some mutants produce proline much higher as compared with wild type under unstressed and salt stress. Mutants lower in proline production induce higher SOD activity is host plants but decrease the catalase activity as than that of the wild type. Thus it is concluded that the difference in the response of mutants may be attributed to the difference in their FTIR spectra and their ability of extracellular protein production.

 

401-410 Download
7

Physiological and biochemical bases of resistance of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to pasmo


Si Chen, Xixia Song, Hongmei Yuan, Shuquan Zhang, Le Chen, Yan Liu, Wengong Huang, Jing Chen, Liguo Zhang, Yubo Yao, Jun Ma, Qinghua Kang, Weidong Jiang, Xue Yang and Guangwen Wu

Physiological and biochemical bases of resistance of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to pasmo


ABSTRACT:

This study preliminarily aimed to discuss the relationship between the dynamic changes in physiological and biochemical indexes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) resistant and susceptible varieties (lines) and their resistance to pasmo pathogen (Septoria linicola), and provide the basis for exploring the mechanism of disease resistance in flax. The activities of defensive enzymes and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the leaves of two flax cultivars, one resistant and another susceptible to pasmo, were detected at different stages after inoculation with the pathogen. The results showed that in the early stages of pathogen infection, the activity of superoxide dismutase of resistant varieties (lines) was significantly higher than that of susceptible varieties (lines). In addition, the changes in peroxidase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase activities in the inoculated leaves of different flax varieties positively correlated with their varied resistance to pasmo, but with no significant difference between resistant and susceptible varieties. However, the changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in the two cultivars were assumed to be negatively correlated with their resistance to pasmo. For most of the stages after inoculation with S. linicola, the changes in the MDA content were negatively correlated with host resistance, but with no significant difference between resistant and susceptible varieties

411-418 Download
8

Enhancing the defensive power of plants through the application of some potential elicitors, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles: regulation of secondary metabolism


Afifa Zaeem, Rabbia Mudasser and Matiullah Khan

Enhancing the defensive power of plants through the application of some potential elicitors, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles: regulation of secondary metabolism


ABSTRACT:

Secondary metabolites are biologically active compounds synthesized by plants necessarily for defense. These secondary metabolites are very vital because of their tremendous use in the pharmaceutical industry. They have wide-ranging applications in drug development and medical science. However, the production rate of these compounds in plants is limited and increasing demand in medicine requires enhanced production of secondary metabolites. To compact this low potential, the secondary metabolite production is manipulated by In vitro practice of plant tissue culture. In these procedures, plant cells are grown in various biotic and abiotic stressors as elicitors. From them, the most recently used are nanoparticles (NPs), because of their interesting and unique nature. They are of different types depending on the nature of the composition element. This review article mainly focuses on silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) NPs as active plant elicitors in stimulating essential In vitro secondary metabolite production. Ag and Cu NPs are being extensively explored in recent researches. The review basically outlines and summarizes the major recent studies conducted on different plant species for industrial level metabolite productions by Ag and Cu NPs during the last years. The enhanced production of secondary metabolites via Ag and Cu NPs is not reported previously, thus this review will help in further understanding of the role of specific NPs in triggering vital secondary metabolites in plants

419-427 Download
9

Cloning and functional analyses of NtPIN1a promoter under various abiotic stresses in Nicotiana tabacum


Zia Ullah, Muhammad Asim, Sujuan Shi, Rayyan Khan, Aaqib Shaheen and Haobao Liu

Cloning and functional analyses of NtPIN1a promoter under various abiotic stresses in Nicotiana tabacum


ABSTRACT:

The plant-specific auxin efflux proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN) have been well depicted in many plant species for their essential roles in regulating the transport of auxins in several phases of plant growth. Little is known about the various functions of the PIN family genes in the Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) species during plant growth. To define the expression pattern of the NtPIN1a gene under abiotic stresses and hormone treatment, transgenic tobacco with promoter NtPIN1a::GUS construct was employed. Comprehensive computational analyses of the NtPIN1a promoter confirmed the existence of common core promoter elements including CAAT-box, TATA-box, hormone, and abiotic stress-responsive elements such as ABRE, P-box, MYC, MYB, ARE, and GC-motifs. The transgenic plants with the promoter of NtPIN1a displayed a promising expression of β-glucuronidase (GUS) in germinating seeds, root tips, shoot-apex, and developing leaves under optimal conditions. While the differential expression of GUS in moderate salt, drought, low potassium stresses, and externally high auxin level at two different time points, suggested NtPIN1a played a key role in growth processes and the plants’ response to abiotic stresses. This analysis provides a foundation for more in-depth discoveries of the biological functions of NtPIN1a in Nicotiana species and this promoter may be employed in genetic engineering of other crops for enhanced stress tolerance.

 

429-438 Download
10

Taxonomic assessment and rearrangement of endemic Jasione supina-Complex from Turkey


Okan Sezer and Murat Ardic

Taxonomic assessment and rearrangement of endemic Jasione supina-Complex from Turkey


ABSTRACT:

Jasione supina (Campanulaceae) is a Turkish endemic and a variable species represented by 4 subspecies in the Flora of Turkey (J. supina subsp. pontica, subsp. akmanii, subsp. supina and subsp. tmolea). The morphological and anatomical characteristics of these taxa and their distribution area have been identified. Morphological characteristics of J. supina taxa such as involucral bracts, calyx and leaves have been compared with morphological characteristics given in Flora of Turkey. In consideration of collected morphological data, the description related to the Flora of Turkey has been updated and revised within the study. Besides, a new identification key has been created by correcting the existing mistakes in the earlier identification key of J. supina taxa. There has been found a high similarity between J. supina subsp. supina and J. supina subsp. akmanii in terms of morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristics. Also J. supina subsp. pontica individuals have been collected from the distribution area of J. supina subsp. akmanii (the peak of Mountain Köroğlu /Bolu and the peak of Mountain Murat/Kütahya). By considering the findings of the study, it is recommended that these two subspecies should be classified as a variety (J. supina subsp pontica (Boiss.) Damboldt var pontica stat. nov. and J. supina subsp. pontica (Boiss.) Damboldt var akmanii (Damboldt) Sezer stat. nov.).

439-451 Download
11

Population structure of Peltophorum africanum Sond. in Lolla-Tau, Mpumalanga province, South Africa


Shalom Pabalelo Mashile, Milingoni Peter Tshisikhawe and Ndivhaleni Anox Masevhe

Population structure of Peltophorum africanum Sond. in Lolla-Tau, Mpumalanga province, South Africa


ABSTRACT:

Population structure of plants assists in identifying the health of plants species within a particular habitat. The aim of this study was to determine the population structure of Peltophorum africanum in Bolla-Tau village. Twenty-six 100m x 10m line transects were established within Peltophorum africanum Sond. Population. The height of the plants, stem circumference, healthiness of crown and information on whether the plant species was being harvested or not, were recorded. A total of 256 individuals were recorded from the study. The results showed that the population structure of P. africanum was bell-shaped and the Logarithmic analysis along with generalized log analysis depict that there is significant correlation between the plant height and stem circumference. Resprout of P. africanum individuals were only 18% and 82% of the individuals were harvested. The study observed that 43.8% of individuals had traces of crown damage as compared to healthy crown (35.9%).

 

461-466 Download
12

Current status and molecular characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infecting ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L.) in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan


Zohaib Asad, Muhammad Ashfaq, M. Inam-Ul-Haq, Gulshan Irshad and M. Azam Khan

Current status and molecular characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infecting ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L.) in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV) included in the genus Potyvirus is one of the most destructive pathogens of cucurbits, including ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula L.) which is widely grown in Indo-Pak subcontinent and can cause significant yield losses worldwide. In the present study, a total of 300 leaf and fruit samples of ridge gourd with virus-like symptoms were collected from 03 districts of Punjab, Pakistan. To perform an initial screening of ZYMV these samples were subjected to Plate Trap Antigen-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (PTA-ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies. Overall disease incidence during 2018-2019 was 28.33%. The prevalence of ZYMV was confirmed in all ridge gourd sampling sites. ELISA-positive samples were further confirmed through RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Comparison of sequences with those available in Genbank showed 91-98% nucleotide and 98%-100% amino acid-based homology. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that Pakistani ZYMV ridge gourd isolates (MN897100, and MN897101) have close relationship with South Korean, Chinese and Turkish ZYMV isolates, and strengthened the belief that ZYMV Pakistani isolates reported in this study has Asian origin. Identification of new ZYMV isolates strengthen the breeding programs for the development of resistance genotypes to manage this notorious virus.

 

467-474 Download
13

A comparative study of Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia tirucalli based on DNA barcoding markers


Shawkat M. Ahmed and Ahmed Noureldeen

A comparative study of Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia tirucalli based on DNA barcoding markers


ABSTRACT:

DNA regions (ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL and trnH) have been examined for authentication and differentiation between E. peplus, E. hirta and E. tirucalli collected from Taif-KSA. The sequences of Euphorbia species were submitted in Genbank as new records within this research. ITS, ITS2 and rbcL provided good identification and clear resolution for the species, whereas, ITS2 and rbcL showed no or very little evolution. The highest sequence lengths were detected by matK and IT’S in E. hirta, E. tirucalli and then E. peplus. Our gathered results of Tajima relative evolutionary values revealed that ITS, matK and trnH showed rates of acceleration of evolution (P-values<0.05) within their sequences. The phylogenetic trees did not show any variability between the three Euphorbia species and the other retrieved GenBank accessions rejecting their endemism to flora of Saudi Arabia. The results support the hypothesis that E. peplus, E. hirta and E. tirucalli occur in the natural areas of Taif as naturalized species.

 

475-481 Download
14

De novo transcriptome assembly and development of EST-SSR markers of the endangered Dendrebium nobile (Orchidaceae)


Bin Zhu, Xi Luo, Zuomin Gao, Xin Hu and Qingbei Weng

De novo transcriptome assembly and development of EST-SSR markers of the endangered Dendrebium nobile (Orchidaceae)


ABSTRACT:

Dendrobium nobile of the family Orchidaceae has been widely used as an important traditional Chinese herbal medicine and a popular garden flower worldwide. It is mainly distributed in southern Tsinling Mountains of China. However, the wild D. nobile is getting endangered due to its habitat destruction and overexploitation. Deciphering genomic information of D. nobile and developing genetic markers are essential for the formulation of scientific protection measures. Here, the comprehensive transcriptome data of a wild D. nobile ecotype, “chishuijinchai”, was obtained by de novo assembly based on Illumina RNA-seq data. A total of 138,628,272 clean reads were generated after removing the adapters and low-quality reads. All the reads were assembled into 114,191 unigenes with an average length of 918 base pairs (bp). Out of 114,191 unigenes, 39,373 unigenes (34.5%) were annotated based on any of the COG, KEGG, KOG, Pfam, Swiss-Prot and Nr databases. Additionally, 27,614 (24.18%) unigenes were annotated into 3 main GO categories. Moreover, a total of 29,380 SSR (simple sequence repeats) loci located on 22,572 unigenes were identified by MISA. Around 100 primers were randomly selected for polymorphism validation across 8 Dendrobium species. Out of these selected primers, 62 and 29 primers showed inter- and intra-specific polymorphisms, respectively. These findings provide fundamental basis for evolution and population genetic diversity studies of D. nobile, which should be beneficial for the protection of its germplasm resources

 

483-489 Download
15

Some morphological characteristics of fruits and leaves of Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. genotypes from southern Oltenia


Ana-Maria Stoenescu and Sina Niculina Cosmulescu

Some morphological characteristics of fruits and leaves of Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. genotypes from southern Oltenia


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this paper was to identify and analyse the morphological characteristics of European crab apple fruits and leaves within a forest ecosystem from South-West part of Oltenia region, Romania. Genotypes were studied for their individual characteristics, fruit morphological characteristics, and leaf morphometric parameters. In terms of fruit characteristics the fruit height ranged between 16.64 mm – 35.47 mm, fruit diameter between 19.47 mm – 43.38 mm and fruit weight between 3 g to 26 g. Fruit shape index, had a mean value of 0.84, and variation limits between 0.61 to 1.12. The coefficient of variation had values between 6.83 – 13.33% for fruit height, 4.93 – 14.76% for fruit diameter, 14.10 – 41.70% for fruit weight and 4.87 – 8.00 for fruit shape index. The leaves morphometric characteristics varied between 8.02 cm2 and 48.48 cm2 for leaf surface area, 3.86 cm to 10.00 cm for leaf length and 2.67 cm to 6.11 cm for leaf width. The coefficient of variation ranged between 9.63 – 21.25% for leaf surface area, 7.50 – 12.26% for leaf length, 6.57 – 12.80% for leaf width and 7.43 – 14.87% for leaf length/width ratio. Variability identified from one genotype to another indicates potential for selection of individuals with superior characteristics

491-496 Download
16

Morphoagronomic characterization and genetic variability analysis of common bean landraces in Kashmir Himalayas: implications for yield enhancement


Sidra Nasar and Ghulam Murtaza

Morphoagronomic characterization and genetic variability analysis of common bean landraces in Kashmir Himalayas: implications for yield enhancement


ABSTRACT:

Common bean landraces cultivated in the Himalayan mountains of Kashmir region constitute a diverse gene pool with broad genetic variations having immense potential in crop improvement and yield enhancement programs. Current study was designed with the core objective to evaluate the morphoagronomic traits of common beans landraces cultivated in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) Pakistan and identify the best performing genotypes to for breeding purposes to achieve sustainable crop production. The collected Genotypes were evaluated for a total of 25 morpho-agronomic traits including 13 quantitative traits along with 12 qualitative traits by employing randomized complete block (RCBD) experiment design. Considerable variations were observed in the qualitative traits with the highest frequency value recorded for indeterminate climber growth habit, small to medium seed size. Maximum variations were recorded in the investigated quantitative traits including Plant height (59.1-315.73 cm), hundred seed weight (20.7-65.67 g), seed yield per Plant (8.16-36.15 g); whereas moderate levels of variation were recorded in Days to flowering (52.9-70.8); Leaf Length (7.11-12.15 cm), Leaf width (5.4-10.7 cm), Pod length (8.17-15.4 cm), Seed length (10.18-17.35 mm), Seed width (6.16-8.86 mm), Pod width (0.85-1.72 cm), Pod beak length (0.45-0.96). Analysis of genetic variability revealed that Hundred seed weight, Seed yield per plant and Plant height traits exhibited high heritability values with maximum scores of Phenotypic as well as genotypic coefficients of variation, also having highest (>50%) values of genetic advance. Our study has identified KEL-1, NGR-2, HAL-5, and KEL-9 genotypes to be best suitable for cultivation in the rainfed Himalayan mountain agriculture systems in the region having maximum yield outputs. Multivariate ordination analysis identified Plant height, hundred seed weight, and seed yield as principal traits having maximum potential for the crop improvement. Findings provide valuable scientific information about the important yield traits of common bean landraces that with dynamic implications for crop improvement and food security in the mountain agriculture systems across the region

497-506 Download
17

Morphology and phylogeny of important medicinal plant Berberis lycium Royle based on matK, rbcL, ITS and trnH-psbA from Azad Jammu and Kashmir


Syeda Maria Fiaz Bukhari, Ghazanfar Ali, Zeeshan Anjum, Tasleem Akhtar, Wasim Akhtar and Syed Rizwan Abbas

Morphology and phylogeny of important medicinal plant Berberis lycium Royle based on matK, rbcL, ITS and trnH-psbA from Azad Jammu and Kashmir


ABSTRACT:

Berberis lyceum Royle has a long history of medicinal uses to treat different diseases. Dry fruits and roots of this species are medicinally important and are extensively used in many parts of the world. The samples of this species were randomly collected from five districts of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, including 35 locations. In this study fruits, leaves, stem, roots, and thorn of B. lyceum were used. The morphological studies were conducted to evaluate its qualitative and quantitative traits. For genomic analysis, DNA was extracted from fresh leaves and confirmed on 1 % agarose gel electrophoresis. Fifteen samples were selected for phylogenetic analysis by using four markers including matK, rbcL, ITS, and trnH-psbA. Morphological data showed a difference in their values due to the variations in their altitude, climatic conditions, and soil texture. The phylogenetic study and sequence demarcation tool (SDT) analysis revealed that B. lycium Royle sequences identified in the current study are genetically very similar to each other and they developed the distinct clade with very close isolates previously reported and their pairwise sequence identity (PSI) score is more than 99% among themselves. All the genetic markers (matK, rbcL, ITS and trnH-psbA) successfully clustered the sequences and revealed that these markers can be used for species authentication of B. lycium. The 3D protein structural models for matK protein sequences were predicted through I-TASSER. Models having the highest C-score were selected for Ramachandran plot analysis and indicated that 3D protein models of selected samples of B. lyceum were satisfactory. The findings of the current study are very important for the future identification and conservation of this medically important species in the region

507-517 Download
18

Assessment of genetic variation among diverse taramira (Eruca sativa Mill.) germplasm based on molecular markers


Nazma Bibi, Fida Muhammad Abbasi, Malik Ashiq Rabbani and Sohail Ahmad Jan

Assessment of genetic variation among diverse taramira (Eruca sativa Mill.) germplasm based on molecular markers


ABSTRACT:

Genetic diversity is a key to identify elite genotypes for any crop improvement programme. In present study, diverse Taramira (Eruca sativa Mill.) genotypes were characterized using molecular markers in order to assess the inherited patterns of these genotypes for identification of elite and genetically diverse genotypes. Sixty (60) genotypes were provided by Bio-resources Conservation Institute (BCI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) analysis revealed that 54 ploymorphic bands were generated using 40 primer pairs. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value calculated for 10 SSR selected primers determined allele variations at each locus. These values varied from 0.234 for primer PBCGSSRBo36 to 0.720 for primer Na10-G10 with an average PIC value of 0.495 per locus. Each primer produced an average of 1.4 polymorphic bands. All the selected primers produced polymorphism among studied genotypes. The allele’s size varied from 90bp-700bp is the evolution of proposed molecular approach. These results inferred that the accessions studied in present research have low variation revealing narrow genetic background of these accessions. Present investigation concerning molecular analyses, illustrated the highest level of inter-species and middle level of intra-species diversity amongst evaluated genotypes.

 

519-525 Download
19

Transcriptome analysis of sucrose signal transduction pathway in Zhoumai 18 (Triticum aestivum L.)


Ya-Lan Feng, Bin-Bin Guo, Chao Ma, De-Hui Sheng, Meng-Yuan Wang, Ke Xv, Jun Zhang, Shuang Zhou and Ming-Can Chen

Transcriptome analysis of sucrose signal transduction pathway in Zhoumai 18 (Triticum aestivum L.)


ABSTRACT:

Sucrose is the primary form of photosynthetic products in plants, not only constituting the carbon skeleton of plants, but also the energy source for sink organs. In addition, sucrose could function as a signaling molecule and participates in multiple biological processes. Palatinose, an isomer of sucrose, does not participate in sugar metabolism, but regulates sugar signaling in plants. The utilization of palatinose could overcome the problem of the conversion between hexose and sucrose, and is conducive to studying the perception and transmission pathways of sucrose signals. In this study, Illumina HiSeq platform was used to perform transcriptome and expression profiling on wheat leaves treated with sucrose and palatinose, respectively. Through comparative transcriptome analysis, we identified 4,174 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). According to bioinformatics analysis including functional annotation and pathway enrichment, these DEGs were divided into four categories, namely signaling (587), plant hormone regulation (121), transcription factor (210) and metabolic pathways (890). These DEGs were most likely related genes of the sucrose signal transduction pathway. This study provides a new insight and theoretical foundation for the enrichment of the sucrose signal transduction pathway and the elucidation of its mechanism of action

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20

Effects of magnesium ion doped carbon quantum dots on root growth and related genes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling


Ting Mu and Rong Han

Effects of magnesium ion doped carbon quantum dots on root growth and related genes of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling


ABSTRACT:

As time progresses of the times, different kinds of nanomaterials affect the life cycle of plants as they are released into the environment. The purpose of this paper was to take Mg-doped carbon quantum dots (Mg-CDs) as an example to research the Arabidopsis thaliana. The effects of Mg-CDs on the growth and development of A. thaliana was examined. The absorption and distribution of Mg-CDs in A. thaliana roots and leaves and the relative expression levels of related genes (E2Fa and Histone H4) in the cell cycle of A. thaliana seedlings were also determined. Results showed that Mg-CDs could accelerate the growth of A. thaliana roots. They were widely distributed in the cell wall and cytoplasm of the roots and chloroplasts of the leaves, and the relative expression levels of E2Fa increased first and then decreased with the increase in Mg-CDs concentration, as did that of Histone H4. Further analysis indicated that Mg-CDs affected the cell cycle of A. thaliana seedlings, thus resulting in root elongation. These findings showed that Mg-CDs have a great application potential in biotechnology research

537-544 Download
21

Sugarcane varietal response for sucrose accumulation subjected to thermal stress at formative stage


Muhammad Kazim Ali, Faisal Mehdi, Yawen Zeng, Abid Azhar and Saddia Galani

Sugarcane varietal response for sucrose accumulation subjected to thermal stress at formative stage


ABSTRACT:

Development and improvement of renewable energy sources is a vital task to cope with fossil fuel associated consequences on nature. Recently, green energy has been emerged as an alternative for the said challenge. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is the principal source of sucrose and bioethanol worldwide. However, unfavorable climatic condition particularly episodes of heat waves cause significant reduction in sugarcane biomass and sucrose accumulation. Selection of appropriate variety at formative stage is one of the vital approaches to cope with global warming and may reduce economic loss in cultivation of this annual crop. So, the study was formulated to a) elucidate the varietal differences for sucrose accumulation under thermal stress and b) understand the physiological and biochemical response towards high temperature. Therefore, two sugarcane cultivars viz S-2003-US-633 (high sucrose accumulation) and SPF-238 (low sucrose accumulation) were subjected to heat stress at formative stage. Cell membrane thermostability (CMT), lipid per-oxidation (LPO) and level of oxidative stress, were monitored as stress damage indicators while variation in proline accumulation showed osmoregulatory potentials. Non-reducing and reducing sugars proportion in the total sugar assessed and correlated with soluble protein concentration to mimic the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. Results revealed positive relationship of proline and protein content with total sugars in S-2003-US-633 as compared to SPF-238. The later crop had low sucrose may be due to low CMT, higher MDA, and H2O2. It is evident that cultivar S-2003-US-633 tolerated heat stress based on its physio-chemical managements and ensures high sucrose recovery. The study suggests potential application of the indices in field evaluation and selection of climate resilient sugarcane plant at formative stage to cope with yield and economic loss of this annual cash crop in times of climate change.

545-552 Download
22

Bio-stimulation and yield responsiveness in maize


Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Arslan Akhtar, Muhammad Yaseen, Muhammad Amir Maqbool, Waseem Akbar and Javeria Ramzan

Bio-stimulation and yield responsiveness in maize


ABSTRACT:

Since green revolution, synthetic fertilizers have been used extensively to enhance the crop productivity which posed harmful effects in various ecosystems. It is therefore needed to substitute or supplement the application of synthetic nutrients with organic ones for sustainable agricultural productivity. More recently, there is an increasing interest to organic bio-stimulants and if they are combined with synthetic nutrients, they have been reported to increase the crop productivity. Current investigation was planned to evaluate responsiveness of eleven commercial hybrids of maize against different combinations of a bio-stimulant (Plant ProtectorTM) and synthetic fertilizer. Application of bio-stimulant increased plant biomass and chlorophyll contents, and reduced leaf temperature of the plants making them able to withstand high atmospheric temperratures. Treatment of bio-stimulant combined with 50% of prescribed synthetic fertilizer at 7 leaf stage showed 73.53% and 68.58% increase in the yield as compared to control and recommended fertilizer dose, respectively. Treatments, genotypes and their interactions contributed 35.97%, 26.23% and 27.79% of total variation for cob yield, respectively. Among the studied genotypes, FH-963, FH-985 and FH-988 were highest yielding. Results suggested that maize hybrids were highly responsive to nutrients at 7-leaf stage. It is recommended that for highest yield, dose of synthetic fertilizer could be reduced to half and supplemented with bio-stimulant at 7-leaf stage

553-561 Download
23

Synchronization of zinc rates through soil and foliar application with synthetic fertilizer to maximize growth, yield and quality attributes of mango


Muhammad Mehboob Hassan Khan and Niaz Ahmed

Synchronization of zinc rates through soil and foliar application with synthetic fertilizer to maximize growth, yield and quality attributes of mango


ABSTRACT:

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is among the major constraints for reduced fruit production and quality in mango orchards soils. Therefore, the judicious use of Zn in mango orchards is gaining attention. Although, the farming communities are using Zn as a micronutrient fertilizer; however, the synchronization of inorganic fertilizers and Zn application rate is yet to be performed under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, the current experiment was performed to assess better application methods (soil and foliar application) and judicious rates of Zn with recommended doses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for mango trees. Zinc was applied as ZnSO4 at the rate of 0, 150, and 300 g plant-1 as basal application and 0, 0.5, and 1.0% as a foliar application. Results confirmed with an increase in soil and foliar-applied Zn solely, growth, quality and yield of mango fruit improved. Combined use of soil and foliar Zn gave more positive effects over sole application. Treatment T7 (recommended NPK + ZnSO4 (150 g plant-1 as basal and 1.0% as foliar spray)) followed by T8 (recommended NPK + ZnSO4 (300 g plant-1 as basal and 1.0% as foliar spray)) were statistically alike for the improvement in yield per tree, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and sugar contents. In conclusion, recommended NPK + ZnSO4 (150 g plant-1 as basal and 1.0% as foliar spray) is a better approach for maximizing the yield, growth attributes and quality of mango fruits.

 

563-568 Download
24

Application of combined fertilizers improves biomass, essential oil yield, chemical compositions, and ferulic acid content of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.


Lucun Yang, Jingjing Li, Yuanming Xiao and Guoying Zhou

Application of combined fertilizers improves biomass, essential oil yield, chemical compositions, and ferulic acid content of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.


ABSTRACT:

Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, called DangGui in Chinese of the family Umbelliferae is a well-known perennial medicinal plant with versatile medicinal properties in the Chinese traditional medicine. In this research, a field experiment was carried on to understand the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on biomass, ferulic acid content, essential oil yield, essential oil content and compositions of A. sinensis in Minhe county of Qinghai province of China. The treatments were: control (without fertilizer), pig manure (PM, 13.5 t ha−1), sheep manure (SM, 9.8 t ha−1 ), chemical fertilizers (CF, 60, 45 and 30 kg–ha−1, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), kalium (K), respectively), organic fertilizer (OF, 600kg ha−1), pig manure + chemical fertilizers (PM+CF, 6.75 t ha−1 + 30-27.5-15 kg ha−1 N, P, K) and sheep manure + chemical fertilizers (SM+CF, 4.9 t ha−1 + 30-27.5-15 kg ha−1 N, P, K ). PM+CF treatment produced 31.4% higher crop yields and 49.4% higher essential oil yield over the control, respectively. The highest mean values of chlorophyll-a (2.07mg·g1), chlorophyll-b (0.61mg·g1) and total chlorophyll (2.68 mg·g1) were acquired under the treatment of PM+CF. The major component of essential oil of A. sinensis is ligustilide. The highest amount of ligustilide was acquired under the treatment of PM+CF. The ferulic acid was increased (48.85% compared with control) under the treatment of PM+CF. The P and K contents of the soil were increased under the treatment of PM+CF (around 30.13% and 25.53% higher over the control, respectively). Our studies indicated that the combined application of fertilizers improved soil nutirent, leading to increase in biomass yield and improved the quality of A. sinensis.

 

569-575 Download
25

Effect of elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on phenotype, photosynthesis and biomass accumulation in juvenile phase of Prunus armeniaca × Sibirica


Hua-Feng Yue, Ming Zhou, Xiao-Kui Hou, Xia Yang, Han Zhao, Meng-Sha Xu, Lin Wang, Hui-Min Liu, Ta-Na Wuyun, Gao-Pu Zhu and Fang-Dong Li

Effect of elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on phenotype, photosynthesis and biomass accumulation in juvenile phase of Prunus armeniaca × Sibirica


ABSTRACT:

The goal of the study was to analyze the effects of three elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on the growth and development of Prunus armeniaca × sibirica cv. Youyi. Hoagland medium was used for treatments with accurate control supply of these elements. The results showed that a lack of nitrogen was associated with changes in color and shape: the color of leaves was changed into yellow-green, veins transferred into white, and their shape was irregularly distorted. When the chlorophyll content in palisades was depleted, the sponge tissue became loose, and cell gaps were increased. The absence of phosphorus was associated with upward curling of leaves and the appearance of white spots on the edge which developed gradually into necrotic spots, while the center part remained dark green in color. Chlorophyll content remained high in the leaves. In the absence of potassium, new leaves were softer and yellower, and the upper part showed a significant distortion reaction. For most of the old leaves, there were focal necrotic spots on the leaf margins. When the supply of exogenous nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was sufficient, the contents of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the leaves were 18.81 - 32.13 mg·g-1, 8.92 - 9.64 mg·g-1 and 34.37 - 38.63 mg-1. While in insufficient scenario, the contents were 8.97 - 12.43 mg·g-1, 1.12 - 1.37 mg·g-1 and 5.18 - 7.38 mg·g-1, respectively. The supply of nitrogen had an effect on the development of the main root, phosphorus on the lateral root, and potassium for the number of fibrous roots. Especially when the elements of nitrogen and potassium were lacking at the same time, the root development was significantly hindered, and the biomass accumulation was significantly decreased. We thus suggest that the current practice of applying fertilization without phosphorus and potassium in early growth goes against scientific evidence

577-588 Download
26

Use of osmotic pressure in allelopathic trials


Saira Qadir, Iram Us Salam, Afsheen Khan, Alia Abbas and Ijaz Ahmed Qureshi

Use of osmotic pressure in allelopathic trials


ABSTRACT:

This paper explains the relative suppression of crop growth as a consequence of either allelopathic expression or osmotic stress, finding the main factor of inhibition. For this study, five crops are tested namely Zea mays L. (Maize), Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley), Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea), Pisum sativum L. (Pea) and Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans), using three weeds for allelopathic test i.e., Portulaca oleracea L. Euphorbia hirta L. and Amaranthus viridis L. PEG (Polyethylene glycerol) 6000 is used for seed priming against weeds to maintain osmotic balance between two types of trials. The rate of inhibition appeared too close at these predefined early stages though, but the weed stress has poorly (p<0.1) dominated over osmoticum. Seed germination has no significant difference among samples while seedling vigor index (SVI%) has the priority in the seeds treated with PEG corresponded with P.oleracea at 31%. Similarly, chlorophyll content at seedling stage shows highest synthesis in the same samples i.e., 42 μg/mg/ml. Contrarily, the lowest SVI% was estimated as 38% from A. viridis samples and the lowest synthesized chlorophyll is recorded i.e., 38 μg/mg/ml from the same samples. Among tested weeds, A. viridis has produced strong inhibition while P. oleracea appeared as less inhibitory or relatively influential than PEG extracts. This shows negligible or no inhibitory effects of P. oleracea and E. hirta while A. viridis has greater influence on crops that can be severe than osmotic stress at higher concentrations. It can be assumed that weeds that have not inhibited crop growth might have productive effects on crops in future rather than A. viridis might be inhibitory for the crops at later stages only at higher concentration

589-600 Download
27

Planting densities impart variance impact on kernel properties and some quality parameters for some maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids


Omer Konuskan, Dilsat Bozdogan Konuskan, Celaleddin Barutçular, Nizamettin Turan and Ayman Elsabagh

Planting densities impart variance impact on kernel properties and some quality parameters for some maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids


ABSTRACT:

Climate change scenario has revitalized necessity to optimize agronomic management practices for boosting cereals productivity and nutritional quality. To observe the growth and quality attribute of maize hybrids under various planting densities and in order to sort out the most suitable plant population, a field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University during 2018. Six maize hybrids viz. DKC 6589, Carella, Pioneer 1921, 70 May 82, Cadiz and Bolson were grown using five planting densities (9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 plants m2). The experiment was laid out in split plot arrangement with three replications. Maize hybrids and planting densitides were placed in main plots and sub plots, respectively. Growth characteristics like ear length, weight and diameter, and quality trauts like protein, stach and oil content in grains were determined as response variables. The results revealed that increasing plant densities gradually reduced the growth paramters including ear length, weight and diamter. While, quality traits such as starch and oil contents of basal, middle and tip kernels were increased with the increase in plant densities, but the protein ratio was decreased. The genotypes mean values indicated that 70 May 82 and Carella remained superior for ear length, weight and ear dimater respectively. In contrast, Pioneer 1921 and Bolson outformed other hybrids as far as starch and oil contents were concerned

601-608 Download
28

Microbial community diversity influenced by organic carbon sources in rice - RAPE rotation farmland


Xue-Feng Zou, Ming Ni, Bing Fu, Dong Liu, Xiang He, Qing Zhang, Wan-Li Hu, Hong-Ye Zhu, Da-Cheng Hao and Pei-Weng Yang

Microbial community diversity influenced by organic carbon sources in rice - RAPE rotation farmland


ABSTRACT:

The present study was intended to characterize the responses of soil microbial community to organic carbon sources in rice-rape rotation farmland in Erhai Basin, Yunnan, China. The farmland was supplemented with nitrogen fertilizer alone, nitrogen fertilizer plus organic carbon source materials (Vicia faba straw, corn straw, or composting pine needles) or not fertilized; the soil physical and chemical properties, carbon and nitrogen hydrolases (β - 1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl - β - D-glucosidase) were quantitatively investigated. The composition and diversity of soil microbial community were scrutinized by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. The effects of soil physicochemical properties on soil microbial community were revealed by redundancy analysis (RDA). It turned out that when compared with no fertilization, the organic fertilizers plus nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased organic matter, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C / N ratio) in soils and the activities of carbon/nitrogen hydrolases by 7%, 3%, 5% and 22%/9%, respectively. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that organic carbon source materials combined with nitrogen fertilizer significantly altered the composition and diversity of soil microbial community; Actinoplanes, Rhizobiales, Sordariales, Chaetomiaceae and Labilithrix, which were able to degrade organic matter and fix nitrogen, were substantially increased in their relative abundance. RDA showed that the rhizosphere microbial community was significantly affected by pH, organic matter, total nitrogen and C / N ratio (p<0.05), and Labilithrix, Sordariales, Actinoplanes, and Chaetomiaceae showed a significantly positive correlation with total nitrogen, organic matter and C / N ratio. This study indicates that organic carbon source materials combined with nitrogen fertilizer could increase the contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen, enhance the activities of carbon/nitrogen hydrolases, and significantly increase the relative abundance of microorganisms capable of degrading organic matter and promoting nitrogen cycle in soils

609-618 Download
29

Effect of planting materials and organic amendments on the production of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) seedlings


Nur Shahirah Shahbani, Shiamala Devi Ramaiya, Noorasmah Saupi, Japar Sidik Bujang and Muta Harah Zakaria

Effect of planting materials and organic amendments on the production of purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) seedlings


ABSTRACT:

The rising popularity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) in the local and international markets is due to its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application, which leads to economical opportunities for farmers in Malaysia and worldwide. The production of seedlings comprises crucial phases of the cultivation system through the selection of substrate and planting materials for the development of seedlings and plant conditions in the field. Accordingly, this research aims to the examine the effect of organic manures and planting materials used for purple passion fruit seedlings production. The pot experiment was design following the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement 4 x 2 (4 types of substrates x 2 types of planting materials) with 6 replication per treatment. The Kaplan-Meier analysis recorded that softwood cutting had a higher seedling survival rate of 83% to 100% in comparison to semi-hardwood cutting, with a lower survival rate of 0% to 50%. Among the treatments, the substrates with rabbit composite and soil with softwood cutting (T1) exhibited more significant Dickson’s Quality Index, improving the original development of purple passion fruit seedlings as the leaves amounted to 24.67±1.45, stem diameter of 6.32±0.55 mm, and plant height of 139.33±8.29 cm. The fresh and dried aerial mass of 48.58±0.74 g and 11.51±0.38 g, respectively, including the root mass of 10.23±0.37 g and 2.13±0.35 g was enhanced through the treatment. Notably, the composition of organic rabbit composite and softwood cutting improved the cultivation and feasibility of the passion fruit seedlings.

619-627 Download
30

Quality measurements of various types of wastewaters and their impacts on plant growth


Paras Shah, Muhammad Abid, Kousar Yasmeen, Tooba Naveed, Abdul Hakeem Shaikh, Nusrat Jabeen, Noureen Basheer, Daim Darban and Adam Khan

Quality measurements of various types of wastewaters and their impacts on plant growth


ABSTRACT:

Wastewater is a rich source of essential nutrients for growth of plants. But accumulation of heavy metals restrict the uptake of nutrients that leads to the deficiency of nutrients in plant body and ultimately reduce its growth. In present study, different types of wastewaters from the Malir (Domestic and Industrial wastewater) and Lyari river were collected and analyzed to evaluate their quality. The effect of wastewater assessed on germination and growth parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) and Phaseolus vulgaris (Common Beans). It was evaluated that pH and dissolved oxygen were detected to be under permissible limit of World Health Organization water-quality-standards in DWW (Domestic wastewater) and LWW (Lyari wastewater). Higher amounts of essential nutrients such as Ca, K and Mg were perceived in DWW. Consequently DWW and LWW significantly improved the germination (%) and growth of A. esculentus and P. vulgaris. IWW (industrial wastewater) and mix wastewater (combination of DWW and IWW) reduced germination (%) as well as growth of crops. Higher amount of as and Cd were detected in IWW. Thus, it might be due to their increased concentrations that effected plant growth. However, plant growth depends on quality of applied water as well as variety of crop that tolerate their characteristics

629-637 Download
31

Antioxidant activity of Seriphidium leucotrichum: an anti malarial plant from Minapin valley, district Hunza-Nagar, Pakistan


Zamarrud, F. Tajuddin, S.S. Shaukat, Iftikhar Ali, Sajjad Ali and M. Qaiser

Antioxidant activity of Seriphidium leucotrichum: an anti malarial plant from Minapin valley, district Hunza-Nagar, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted in 2013 in Minapin Valley, which is an administratively controlled area of Central Karakorum National Park (CKNP), Gilgit and Baltistan. Seriphidium leucotrichum (Krasch. ex Ladyg.) K. Bremer & Humphries ex R. Ling belonging to family Asteraceae was collected during the survey. According to local inhabitants this species was being used as a remedy of malaria fever. Therefore the species was evaluated in order to verify the statement. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) method was used to estimate the Total Phenolic Contents (TPC) of S. leucotrichum and DPPH radical scavenging method was used to examine its antioxidant activity. Consequently, 64.5 mg/100 g phenolic contents were calculated from S. leucotrichum. Similarly, it also showed high potential of scavenging activity ranging from 68.18±1.0 to 81.78 ±1.0 μg/ mL .These values were also compared with ascorbic acid which was used as standard. In this connection IC50 values were calculated and were found higher in Ascorbic acid than S. leucotrichum. The present study is the first report on the free radical scavenging properties of S. leucotrichum that might contribute to the possible role of this species against the activity of Plasmodium parasites

639-644 Download
32

Ethnoecological knowledge of wild fodder plant resources of district Buner Pakistan


Saddiq Ur Rahman, Zahid Ullah, Ahmad Ali, Mushtaq Ahmad, Hassan Sher, Zabta Khan Shinwari and Abdul Nazir

Ethnoecological knowledge of wild fodder plant resources of district Buner Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Livestock rearing often remain the sole means of livelihood in agro-pastoral communities harboring in rural mountainous settings. This study documents the characteristics, altitudinal distribution, seasonal availability, mode of utilization, preference rank, and palatability of fodder species used by indigenous agro-pastoralist communities of Buner, Pakistan. In total 85 informants (69 male, 16 female), aged between 25-90 years, including farmers, shepherds, local farm owners and veterinary practiotioners were interviewed, to obtain traditional knowledge for determining priority fodder species for sustainable livestock raising. In total 115 fodder species, belonging to 34 families were reported from the study area. Poaceae, Fabaceae and Rosaceae together shared 64% of the fodder species, contributed 39, 17 and 07 species, respectively. Most of the fodder plants (43%) are available in summer season, the peak months being July and August, while 30% fodder plants grow in spring season. In 64% cases whole plants were palatable while in 24% cases leafy shoots and in 12% species only the leaves were palatable. 44% species were of high priority, 32% medium priority and 24% were low priority species for livestock as identified by informants. Further 71% species were preferred by cattle only in fresh condition while 28% in both fresh and dry conditions. Based on pairwise comparison (PC), top 05 fodder species included Avena fatua ranked 1st with 25 points, followed by Echinochloa crus-galli (2nd, 24 points), Brachiaria ramosa (3rd, 23 points), Phaceleurus speciosus and Melia azedarach 4th and 5th respectively. The indigenous livestock rearing communities possess valuable traditional knowledge with substantial implications for prioritizing wild fodder/forage species, for sustainable livestock raising by rural pastoralists and domestic livestock owners

645-652 Download
33

Phytochemical study of Crambe tatarica Sebeok, a promising source of medicinal plant extracts


Turalin Bauyrzhan, Kurbatova Natalya, Inelova Zarina, Kupriyanov Andrey, Kurmanbayeva Мeruert, Abidkulova Кarime and Bazargaliyeva Aliya

Phytochemical study of Crambe tatarica Sebeok, a promising source of medicinal plant extracts


ABSTRACT:

The article presents the results of a phytochemical study of Crambe tatarica Sebeok, a promising plant of the family Brassicaceae growing in Western Kazakhstan. The results of qualitative and quantitative analyses confirmed that the aboveground parts of C. tatarica are richer in alkaloids, carotenoids, monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and rutinose) and phospholipids than the root system. In the roots of C. tatarica, a higher content of tannins has been recorded (2,3-O-hexaoxidifenoyl-4,6-O-sanguisorbil-D-glucose, 2,3-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, 1,2,4-tri-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose), coumarins (4,5-dioxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, scopoletin), polysaccharides, triterpenoids, phenolic and hydroxycinnamic acids (gallic, caffeic, ferulic, lilac, gentisic, vanillic, o-cumaric) and flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, gossipetin, myricetin, (+)-catechin, 3-О a-L-rhamnopyranoside kaempferol). Regardless of the place of growth, the Kazakh species C. tatarica contains alkaloids, tannins of the hydrolyzable type, carotenoids, coumarins, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phospholipids. We studied antibacterial and fungicidal activity of the aqueous, alcohol and acetone extracts of the aboveground parts and roots of C. tatarica. We found that certain concentrations of these extracts had both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. The highest activity of the tested samples of acetone extracts was shown against the test strain S. aureus ATCC 6538-P. Thus, acetone extracts of the aboveground parts and roots of C. tatarica were active against staphylococcus at a concentration of 0.78 mg / ml, where 0.9% saline was used as a solvent. When dissolved in 96% ethanol, acetone extracts also showed increased activity against the museum test strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538-P. Extracts from the aboveground parts and roots of C. tatarica had fungicidal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 at concentrations of 0.78 mg / ml 12.5 mg / ml, respectively (96% ethanol was used as a solvent).

 

653-666 Download
34

Total phenolic-flavonoids contents, anti-leishmanial, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of Pakistani tea brands and tea plant Camellia sinensis


Hina Rehman, Muzamil Shah, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Waqar Ali, Nadir Zaman Khan, Muhammad Aasim, Noor Shad Bibi and Muhammad Ayaz

Total phenolic-flavonoids contents, anti-leishmanial, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of Pakistani tea brands and tea plant Camellia sinensis


ABSTRACT:

Tea is generally prepared by steeping the dried young leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis in a boiled water. Following water, tea is mostly consuming drink in the world. This research project was designed to evaluate different tea samples for various biological assays. Assays including antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and antioxidant were carried out following standard procedures. Antimicrobial activities were include disc diffusion and micro broth dilution methods, while spectrophotometric method was used for antioxidant and anti-leishmanial assays. Our test samples exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas  aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs of 3.7 µg ml-1. Tapal and Tetly showed considerable inhibitory activities against R. solani with 64 ± 3.6 and 76 ± 45% inhibitions respectively at 10 mg ml-1 concentrations. Likewise, Lipton and Tapal showed 76 ± 54 and 76 ± 57% inhibitory activity against A. niger at 10 mg ml-1 concentrations. Tetly was most effective against L. tropica with IC50 of 293.9 μg/ml. Considerable antioxidant and phenolic, flavonoids contents might be responsible for these pharmacological activities and health benefits associated with the use the selected tea brands

667-673 Download
35

Dendroclimatology of a mid-elevation forest in Pakistan


Afsheen Khan, Paul R. Sheppard and Moinuddin Ahmed

Dendroclimatology of a mid-elevation forest in Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

The study aims for the exploration of dendroclimatological history from Himalayan fir (Abies pindrow Royle ex D. Don) growing in the mid elevation zone of Pakistan. Temperature and precipitation are the main limiting factors for tree growth in the region, of which precipitation dominates as the area is moist temperate in nature. As the lower and mid elevations experience a greater degree of human interference, tree-ring records only 148 years old spanning from 1870-2016 AD. The average mean sensitivity of Abies pindrow is 0.280 and average auto-correlation is 0.757. Tree-ring widths correlate with precipitation, which was best suited for reconstruction of past climate. Linear correlation between tree-ring chronology and precipitation is significantly (p<0.05) positive with May-June precipitation showing the highest correlation with growth of Abies pindrow. Gradually changing climate has produced significant changes between past and current climatic conditions, as evidenced from tree rings of Himalayan fir.

 

675-681 Download
36

Ecological assessment and indicator species analyses of the Cholistan desert using multivariate statistical tools


Sana Rasheed, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Zeeshan Ahmad, Ghazala Mustafa, Zahoor Ul Haq, Hussain Shah, Lubna Ansari and Tahira Jatt

Ecological assessment and indicator species analyses of the Cholistan desert using multivariate statistical tools


ABSTRACT:

It was hypothesized that the vegetation structure of Cholistan desert shows a significant correlation with moisture (water), edaphic and climatic variables. Is it possible to identify plant communities of Cholistan desert using indicator species statistical approach in relation to environmental gradients? To answer these questions quadrat quantitative ecological techniques were used for vegetation data collection in the vicinity of ponds (Tobas/water bodies) of the Cholistan Desert. A total of 4800 quadrats were established in 100 randomly selected Tobas in each direction. Sizes of the quadrats were 64m2, 16m2 and 1m2 for trees, shrubs and herbs, respectively. All the data were put in MS Excel for analyses in PCORD and CANOCO software’s through Two-way Cluster Analysis, Cluster Analysis, Indicator Species Analysis and Canonical Correspondence analysis using Monte Carlo procedures. A total of 49 plant species belonging to 25 families were recorded from Cholistan desert. Cluster analysis and indicator species analysis identified four different plant communities i.e., (i) Prosopis-Dipterygium-Cymbopogon community, (ii) Zizyphus-Suaeda-Cenchrus community, (iii) Tamarix-Haloxylon-Tribulus community and (iv) Capparis-Calotropis-Zaleya community. It is concluded that the available phosphorus, organic matter, soil moister and grazing pressure were the significant (p*<0.05) environmental variables in the determination of vegetation structure, formation of plant communities and its respective indicators in the Cholistan desert

683-694 Download
37

Assessment of biological activities of resin extracted from Tunisian pine forests


Foued Aloui, Mokhtar Baraket, Saber Jedidi, Bilel Hmaidi, Emna Ben Salem‎‏,‏‎ Nouri Jdaidi, Ibtissem Taghouti, Zouhair Nasr and Chaabane Abbes

Assessment of biological activities of resin extracted from Tunisian pine forests


ABSTRACT:

The pine resin is a natural product highly demanded in the chemical industry. The pine resin tapping is a non-existing activity in Tunisia. Extraction and commercialization of this product can improve the livelihood of Tunisian families living within the forest areas and provide additional income for more one million-forest populations. The aim of the current study was to promote this activity on the field and to identify the best practices of resin tapping taking into accountthe national context of Tunisian pine forests. Besides, the present paper evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of three pine species Pinus pinaster, pinea and halepensis. These observational studies and experimental trials were carried out in the forests of Tabarka in the North western of Tunisia. The borehole method was employed using a drilling machine adapted to pine resin tapping. Our results suggest that maritime pine was the major resin production, followed by Aleppo pine and Stone pine with 50, 30, and 20% resin yield, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the gum resin has been tested In vitro by the DPPH test. The strongest anti-free radical capacity was recorded in Pinus pinea with the highest activity (IC50 = 15 ± 0.59 mg/mL), while Pinus halepensis is characterized by a moderate antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 17 ± 0.11 mg/mL). The antibacterial capacity of the gum resin was studied In vitro using the well diffusion method on the four bacterial strains Bacillus, Escherichia coli, Listeria and Salmonella. Variance analysis showed that the resin of Pinus pinea was the most effective in bacterial inhibition with an average inhibition zone diameter (2.13 cm) against Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinaster with 1.60cm and 1.46 cm respectively. Pine resin showed an interesting biological activity and can be used as antioxidant and antibacterial applications

695-700 Download
38

Plant extracts inducing systemic resistance in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) seedlings against Rhizoctonia solani: modulating antioxidant enzymes and PR-proteins expression


Nabeela Afzal, Faisal Mehdi, Shagufta Sahar, Saddia Galani, Saleem Shahzad and Abid Azhar

Plant extracts inducing systemic resistance in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) seedlings against Rhizoctonia solani: modulating antioxidant enzymes and PR-proteins expression


ABSTRACT:

Intensive and indiscriminate use of fungicides is responsible for environmental pollution effecting the living organisms. Natural plant extracts emerge to be potential candidates having competitive abilities to overcome the plant pathogens without effecting human health and environment. Rhizoctonia solani, a root rot causing agent is responsible to cause huge economic losses with limited controlling agents available. The effect/potential of two plant extracts neem (Azadirachta indica) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) was studied against R. solani on tomato seedlings. The altered biochemical activities and stress induced markers were monitored in diseased and treated conditions for tomato seedlings at different growth intervals. Results revealed that stress induced markers such as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Malondialehyde (MDA) indicated significant increase as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes were also significantly increased in diseased plants treated with plant extracts. Moreover, during protein expression analysis, presence of low molecular proteins PR-2 (33-37kDa) were evident in diseased plants treated with neem and eucalyptus extracts as compared to control. Thus, it is concluded that application of plant extracts triggered systemic resistance by the expression of pathogenesis related proteins (PR) and alteration of antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato seedlings

701-709 Download
39

Pectinolytic potential of indigenous Trichoderma strains originated from the north western regions of Pakistan


Nusrat Yasin, Jafar Khan, Khanzadi Fatima Khattak, Shafiq Ur Rehman and Muhammad Anees

Pectinolytic potential of indigenous Trichoderma strains originated from the north western regions of Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

Pectinases are used extensively in food, paper and pulp processing industry with a myriad of potential applications particularly in the synthesis of a variety of biochemicals. Here we screened the indigenous strains of Trichoderma spp. previously isolated from the North Western regions of Pakistan for their pectinolytic activity using the standard cup plate method of depolymerized pectin assays. Trichoderma longibrachiatum strains TKK3 and TKK6 isolated from the Western parts and T. longibrachiatum strains TMK19, TMK21 and TMK22 isolated from the Northern parts of Pakistan showed potential pectinolytic activities with zones of clearance >37mm. An exogenous T. harzianum strain TH also showed zone >37mm. All the other strains including T. virens strain TMK08 and T. brevicompactum strains TMK15, TMK16, TMK17 and TMK18 showed a zone of clearance <37mm or no zone at all. Polygalacturonases are the important commercial pectinases that depolymerize the pectin by hydrolysing the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds. The strains TKK3, TKK6, TMK19, TMK21, TMK22, and TH showed polygalacturonase activity > 20 IU/ml/min. The highest specific pectinase activity (498.5 IU/mg of protein) and specific polygalacturonase activity (1008.5 IU/mg of protein) were shown by T. longibrachiatum strain TKK6. The pectinolytic potential of the indigenous Trichoderma strains using pectin extracted from the orange peels was also evident in the present study. The pectinases produced by these strains may be further purified for their possible use in the industrial processes which is an important perspective of this study

 

711-715 Download
40

Electromagnetic radiations and microbial antagonists potential on yield and physiology of sunflower


Shamsa Kanwal, Marium Tariq, Shahnaz Dawar and Zamin Shaheed Siddiqui

Electromagnetic radiations and microbial antagonists potential on yield and physiology of sunflower


ABSTRACT:

Environmental damage and increase in human population showed that the global food production may soon become insufficient to feed the world’s people. It is essential to improve the agricultural productivity by adopting more simple, sustainable and biologically friendly approach. For this purpose, radiations (gamma rays for 2 minutes, microwave rays for 30 seconds, Uv-c rays for 40 minutes and X-rays (45 Kev) for 10 seconds) and some biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) combinely used to observe  influences on crop growth and on pathogenic fungi. Research showed that UV rays with T. harzianum and P. lilacinus gave maximum length and weight of sunflower plant while weight and number of seeds was improved due to combination between microwave rays and P. fluorescens. T. harzianum with x-rays and UV with B. thuringiensis showed reduction of root infecting fungi like M. phaseolina and Fusarium species. However, Fv/fm Quantum yield ratio and photosynthetic performance activity showed elevated results with the treatment having gamma exposed seeds in combination with B. thuringiensis which leads to increase the P values in OJIP curve.

 

717-722 Download
41

Incidence and severity of common scab of potato caused by Streptomyces scabies in Punjab, Pakistan


Tahira Nisa, Muhammad Inam-Ul-Haq, Tariq Mukhtar, Muhammad Azam Khan and Gulshan Irshad

Incidence and severity of common scab of potato caused by Streptomyces scabies in Punjab, Pakistan


ABSTRACT:

In Pakistan, potato (Solanum tuberosum) is amongst the foremost cash crops for the farming community. Common scab (Streptomyces sp.) is one of major disease, which reduces the price, and market value of potato tubers. The present study was designed to determine the status of common scab in selected potato growing areas. This survey was directed to record the occurrence and intensity of common scab of potato in the major potato producing areas in districts of Punjab, namely Sialkot, Lahore, Kasur, Sahiwal, Okara, Pakpattan, tehsil Depalpur, Faisalabad Taxila and Hazro during the harvesting of potato in 2017-18. Overall, 456 potato fields were surveyed for data collection. It was noticed that the maximum common scab occurrence was recorded in Sahiwal followed by Okara, Kasur, Pakpattan, Faisalabad, Lahore, tehsil Depalpur and minimum in Sialkot and Hazro. Disease incidence was also checked on the current varieties of potato used for sowing, highest disease frequency was observed in var. ‘Kuroda’ and var. ‘Santi’ so these two varieties were highly susceptible while var. ‘Diamant’ and var. ‘Cardinal’ were detected as medium susceptible while var. ‘Lady Rosita’ and ‘var. Asterix’ were detected as highly resistant to common scab. The resistant and moderately susceptible varieties are therefore recommended for cultivation and in developing new resistant cultivars

723-729 Download
42

Bacidia suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider (Ramalinaceae), an addition to the lichen biota of Pakistan confirmed by molecular phylogeny


Madiha Adrees, Kamran Habib and Abdul Nasir Khalid

Bacidia suffusa (Fr.) A. Schneider (Ramalinaceae), an addition to the lichen biota of Pakistan confirmed by molecular phylogeny


ABSTRACT:

Bacidia suffusa, a member of lichenized family Ramalinaceae is reported on the bark of Alnus nitida, from Himalayan moist temperate forest of Pakistan, based on critical morpho-anatomical and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Its occurrence here indicates that it is the first report of this lichen from Pakistan and South East Asia as well. The taxonomic characters of the taxon are given, along with an ITS-based phylogenetic tree and notes on its ecology and distribution.

 

731-736 Download
43

Determination of pesticide residues from grapes procured from different markets using through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)


Hassan Nabeel Ashraf, Noman Walayat, Muhammad Hamzah Saleem, Nadia Niaz, Abdul Hafeez, Muhammad Nauman Atiq, Muhammad Sohaib Chattha, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh and Shafaqat Ali

Determination of pesticide residues from grapes procured from different markets using through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)


ABSTRACT:

Food safety has a substantial aspect of food production for quality assurance as well as public health concern. Farmers using pesticides to fulfil public needs with limited resources and lands. In this limelight, as the pesticides have numeral benefits but cause severe health hazards. Grape samples collected from the different markets of ten cities of Punjab Province and subjected to HPLC for pesticide residues analysis with maximum residual limit (MRLs) assessment. The results showed that grape samples from Faisalabad, Multan and Sahiwal were contaminated with the residues of Chlorothalonil. Samples procured from Lahore and Hafizabad were sprayed with acetamiprid. Meanwhile, Lufenuron residues were determined from grape samples secured from markets of Okara, Lahore and Hafizabad. Samples collected from Okara, Multan and Sahiwal were found contaminated with residues of indoxacarb. Besides, residues of Beta-endosulfan were analyzed from grape samples of Faisalabad and Multan. Almost all samples were contaminated with pesticides residues and pesticides were not applied wisely as suggested by maximum residual limits (MRLs) and good agricultural practices (GAPs). Farmers are not much aware of the threats of pesticide residues on human health due to lack of education and extension work.

 

737-741 Download
44

Monotropa hypopitys mediated metal (Ag, Ni, Cu) nanoparticles in microbial inhibition and mercury (II) ion detection


Nargis Jamila, Naeem Khan, Kousar Khan, Nadia Bibi, Faheem Ullah, Aaliya Minhaz, Fatima Javed, Sana Ihsan and Hafiza Salma Bibi

Monotropa hypopitys mediated metal (Ag, Ni, Cu) nanoparticles in microbial inhibition and mercury (II) ion detection


ABSTRACT:

Green synthesis utilizing plants, algae, fungi and microorganisms for nanoparticles have been drawing attention due to environmental friendly, rapid, and profitable properties. This study was designed to synthesize silver, nickel and copper nanoparticles using a saprophytic plant; Monotropa hypopitys aqueous extract. In addition, the application as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and detection of mercury (II) in tap water were also evaluated. Well-defined and stable nanoparticles (NPs) were formed in 1:9 (copper NPs), 1:10 (nickel NPs), and 1:14 (silver NPs) ratios. Furthermore, M. hypopitys mediated nanoparticles (MHNPs) exhibited significant antioxidant, antimicrobial, and heavy metal sensing properties. This study concluded the promising pharmacological and environmental remediation application of the synthesized MHNPs.

 

743-750 Download
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