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Year 2003 , Volume  35, Issue 5
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1
ROLE OF NATIONAL PARKS IN TURKEY-A CASE STUDY FROM DILEK PENINSULA-GREAT MENDERES DELTA NATIONAL PARK
A. CELIK, S. BASLAR1, A. GUVENSEN3, M. OZTURK2

ROLE OF NATIONAL PARKS IN TURKEY-A CASE STUDY FROM DILEK PENINSULA-GREAT MENDERES DELTA NATIONAL PARK
ABSTRACT:
A survey was conducted in Dilek peninsula-Great Menderes Delta national park, with an area of 10.985 ha. Studies were undertaken during 1998-2001. Vegetation types including 3 new associations namely Urgino-Quercetum cocciferae, Querco-Oleatum europaea and Pistacio- Ceratonietum siliquae are reported for the first time from the area together with a list of over 50 endemics and endangered taxa like Campanula tomentosa. Land degradation practices due to demographic pressures, land clearence, fires and tourism are discussed.

641-657 Download
2
MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF CAULERPA (SIPHONOCLADOPHYCEAE)
R. ALIYA AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL

MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF CAULERPA (SIPHONOCLADOPHYCEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Five siphonocladophycean green seaweeds, Caulerpa chemnitzia (Esp.) Lamour., C. faridii Nizam., C. manorensis Nizam., C. racemosa (Forssk.) J. Ag., and C. taxifolia (Vahl) C. Ag., collected from the coastal waters near Karachi were analyzed phycochemically for their fatty acid, sterol and diterpene constituents using GLC, El-, FD-, GC-, HR- & IR-MS and 1H- & 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Altogether 36 acids i.e. 18 saturated and 18 unsaturated fatty acids were identified as methyl esters. Five different sterols have been identified, isolated, purified and chemically elucidated. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterol, and with the exception of C. faridii it was found in all the other four species. Two diterpenoids have also been isolated from 3 species of Caulerpa, which are acyclic straight chain compounds and are being reported for the first time from any species of Caulerpa. The five species of Caulerpa differed from one another phycochemically in many different aspects.

659-669 Download
3
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE FAMILY LABIATAE FROM PAKISTAN
ANJUM PERVEEN AND M. QAISER

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE FAMILY LABIATAE FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Pollen morphology of 79 species representing 27 genera of the family Labiatae from Pakistan have been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Labiatae is a eurypalynous family. Pollen grains are generally free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, mostly colpate (3-8), rarely colporate. Shape of pollen grains are prolate-spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal or sub-oblate. Sexine may be thicker or thinner than nexine. Reticulate tectum is the most common type. Other tectum types viz. rugulate, foveolate, striate and fossulate are also found. Shape, aperture types and exine ornamentation are found to be more significant pollen characters where seven distinct pollen types viz. Elsholtzia densa - type, Marrubium marrubiastrum - type, Nepeta laevigata - type, Scutellaria prostrata - type, Salvia aegyptiaca - type, Stachys parviflora - type and Teucriunm scordium - type are recognized. The pollen morphology of the family Labiatae does not support the infra familial classification but at the species level it is quite helpful in delimitation of various taxa.

671-693 Download
4
PHYCOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF CERTAIN FRESHWATER GREEN ALGAE OF SINDH
B. GHAZALA, MUSTAFA SHAMEEL , M. IQBAL CHOUDHARY1, SALEEM SHAHZAD AND SULTAN MAHMOOD LEGHARI2

PHYCOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF CERTAIN FRESHWATER GREEN ALGAE OF SINDH
ABSTRACT:
Methanol extracts of five species of freshwater green algae, Chara cotraria A. Braun ex Kützing, Chlorococcum humicolum (Nägeli) Rabenhorst, Hydrodictyon indicum lyengar, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum (C. A. Agardh) Kützing and Zygnema stellinum (Vaucher) C. A. Agardh, collected during September and December 1995 from water channels at Bhitshah, Tandoadam, Hyderabad, and Jamshoro in the province of Sindh (Pakistan), were phycochemically studied by GC-MS & NMR spectroscopy and investigated against seven different tests of bioactivity. Thirty-three different fatty acids ranging from C10 to C29 were detected

695-704 Download
5
ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF ALGAL FLORA OF WAH GARDEN, DISTRICT ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
M.K. LEGHARI, M.Y. LEGHARI1, MUQARRAB SHAH& S.N. ARBANI2

ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF ALGAL FLORA OF WAH GARDEN, DISTRICT ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
The study was conducted near bridge up to Wah Garden from 1st June 2000 to 31st May 2001. Algal samples were collected by phytoplankton net, pipettes, handpicking, etc. and water samples by Nansen bottles for the study of physico-chemical properties. Algae were preserved in 4 % formaline solution and found to contain 172 species belonging to 79 genera of 10 phyla: Cyanophyta (47 species & 17 genera

705-716 Download
6
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND ELEMENTOLOGY OF BENTHIC ALGAE FROM KARACHI COAST
MUHAMMAD AFZAL RIZVI AND MUSTAFA SHAMEEL*

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND ELEMENTOLOGY OF BENTHIC ALGAE FROM KARACHI COAST
ABSTRACT:
Forty species of seaweeds were collected from Karachi coast and several biological tests conducted on them inorder to investigate their antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities. Brown seaweeds showed greater antibacterial activity than the green and red ones. Chaetomorpha antennina, Gracilaria foliifera, Jolyna laminarioides exhibited greatest antifungal activity and Codium shameelii the poorest. The highest phytotoxic activity (100 %) was displayed by Asparagopsis taxiformis at 1000 µg/mL concentration, while Osmundea pinnatifida showed the low insecticidal activity as compared to the other investigated species. Certain elements e.g. Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Zn were determined quantitatively. Among them Ca, Cr and Pb were found to occur in largest amount in green seaweeds, Co, Cu, Fe and Zn in greatest quantity in brown seaweeds, while Cd, K, Mg and Na in highest proportion in the investigated red seaweeds, indicating that various phyla of algae behaved differently in their elemental composition.

717-729 Download
7
SURVEY OF FRESHWATER CYANOPHYTA FROM CERTAIN AREAS OF NORTHERN REGION OF PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
SABEEN NAZ, MUSTAFA SHAMEEL, MASUD-UL-HASAN1 AND SHAFIQUE-UR-REHMAN2

SURVEY OF FRESHWATER CYANOPHYTA FROM CERTAIN AREAS OF NORTHERN REGION OF PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
One hundred sixty-nine species of planktonic, epipelic, epipsammic, epiphytic, aerophytic and epilithic blue-green algae belonging to 2 classes, 4 orders, 9 families and 33 genera have been collected from various freshwater habitats in the districts of Jhang, Jhelum, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Lahore, Kasur, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, Khushab and Jauharabad in the province of the Punjab, as well as from N.W.F.P., Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. Members of the Nostocophyceae with 125 species were found to be more prevalent than those of the Chroocophyceae with 44 species. Oscillatoria with 45 species was the most commonly occurring genus. Greatest species diversity was exhibited by the collections made in Lahore and neighbouring areas. Heterotrichous species were only scarcely observed. Their growth was most abundant in the aquatic environment especially in planktonic state than in the terrestrial environment in benthic condition.

731-741 Download
8
EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH TENSION LINES) ON THE INDIGENOUS FLORAL BIODIVERSITY IN THE VICINITY OF KARACHI- I: STUDIES ON PMC MEIOSIS, MEIOTIC PRODUCTS AND POLLEN FERTILITY
SAHAR ZAIDI AND SURAYYA KHATOON*

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (CREATED BY HIGH TENSION LINES) ON THE INDIGENOUS FLORAL BIODIVERSITY IN THE VICINITY OF KARACHI- I: STUDIES ON PMC MEIOSIS, MEIOTIC PRODUCTS AND POLLEN FERTILITY
ABSTRACT:
To study the effect of electromagnetic fields of high-tension lines on plants, 45 species belonging to 18 genera and 11 families from different localities in and around Karachi under high-tension lines ranging from 66,000 to 2,20, 000 volts have been collected and studied. Besides this, collection of same species was also done from areas free from electromagnetic waves as control. Considerable abnormalities in the meiotic behaviour of these plants with an increase in voltage have been observed in comparison to the control plants. The difference in the frequency of meiotic abnormalities has been found to be statistically significant between test and control plants. Besides this a decrease in pollen fertility is also observed with the increase in voltages. The specimens collected from the vicinity of more than 100,000 volts lines (i.e. 1,32,000 & 2,20,000 volts) showed a tendency to produce certain percentage of diads and diploid pollen grains.

743-755 Download
9
CU2+ STATUS IN SOIL, PLANTS AND ANIMALS DURING WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS
AMEER KHAN, M. YASIN ASHRAF1, M. ASHRAF, G. SARWAR1AND Z. RAHMAN2

CU2+ STATUS IN SOIL, PLANTS AND ANIMALS DURING WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS
ABSTRACT:
To study the relationship among soil, plants and animals regarding translocation of copper, the samples of soil, forage and animals were collected from livestock farm Rukh Ghulama (Distt. Bhakhar, Punjab) during winter and summer seasons. Results indicated that copper (Cu2+) status in soil was 0.24 mg/g below the critical level (0.5 mg/g) during summer season. While in forage Cu2+ concentrations were above the critical level (7.66 mg/g) and the animals fed with this forage had Cu2+ concentration in plasma (0.1 mg/g), milk (0.2 mg/g), urine (0 mg/g) and faeces (30 mg/g) and were almost within the critical limits. The essentiality of copper was suggested to prevent various diseases of animals including anemia and may produce numerous copper dependent metabolic enzymes.

757-761 Download
10
BREEDING MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) GENOTYPES FOR THE AGRO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NWFP
G. S. S. KHATTAK, R. ZAMIR, T. MUHAMMAD AND S. A. SHAH

BREEDING MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) GENOTYPES FOR THE AGRO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF NWFP
ABSTRACT:
Mungbean advanced lines derived through hybridization from different cross. Combinations and the released varieties have been evaluated at NIFA, Peshawar for some important agronomic traits and screened for Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) during kharif season 2002. The genotypes/varieties have shown highly significant genetic variability for the studied traits. The high yielding mungbean recombinants have shown 1603 to 2443 kg/ha yield, large seed size (40.8-55.6 g/1000 seed weight) and MYMV rating from resistant to highly resistant. The days to flowering and physiological maturity of the recombinants were found in range from 30-52 days and 64-93 days, respectively. The genotypes, which took less than 70 days for physiological maturity, were NFM-3-3, NFM-6-2, NFM-6-5, NFM-7-3, NFM-7-6, NFM-7-13, NFM-8-1, NFM-8-2, NFM-8-22 and NM 92. The short stature genotypes (below 50 cm) were NFM-7-3, NFM-12-15 and NFM-12-16. The genotypes NFM-6-2, NFM-7-6, NFM-12-9, NFM-12-12, NFM-12-14, NFM-12-15, NFM-13-2 and NFM-13-4 have produced more than 2.0 tones yield per acre. The genotypes NFM-7-3, NFM-8-22, NFM-12-9, NFM-12-18 and NM 54 exhibited seed size above 55g/1000 seed weight. The genetic variability in the newly developed mungbean genotypes for physiological maturity, plant height, seed size and seed yield reported in this paper could be used directly to evolve mungbean variety or to incorporate these traits in other genotypes through hybridization for the improvement of this crop in the province.

763-770 Download
11
GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SOME PRIMITIVE BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES TO SALT TOLERANCE
G. SARWAR, M.YASIN ASHRAF AND M. NAEEM*

GENETIC VARIABILITY OF SOME PRIMITIVE BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES TO SALT TOLERANCE
ABSTRACT:
Using gravel culture technique, an experiment was conducted to study the genetic variability of some primitive bread wheat varieties to salt tolerance. Eight primitive bread wheat varieties acquired from late Prof. Dr. A. R. Rao, Director CHIDS, Pakistan were grown in plastic pots having four salt (NaCl) treatments i.e. 0.0, 0.5

771-777 Download
12
QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF FRESH TEA PRODUCED IN PAKISTAN GROWING UNDER DIFFERENT AGROECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS
MUHAMMAD AKHLAS, TAHIRA AHMAD*, HAMID FURRUKH SIYAR AND RIZWANA KHANUM*

QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF FRESH TEA PRODUCED IN PAKISTAN GROWING UNDER DIFFERENT AGROECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS
ABSTRACT:
Pakistan is auspicious in having ca. 60,000 hectare of land in the north of the country with propitious ecological elements appropriate for tea cultivation. During the current investigation qualitative components of tea produced in Pakistan under different agroecological conditions were studied. To evaluate the effect of plucking season, altitude and agronomic practices upon quality of tea, trials were initiated in 1998 at Shinkiari (1000 m) and Battal (1500 m) on mature tea bushes. Nitrogen (N) treatments (120-420 kg/hec/annum) were applied to the experimental plots while potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) were kept constant in the range of 90 and 30 kg/hec/annum respectively. Tea leaf samples (two leaves and bud) were collected in four plucking seasons i.e. vernal, aestival, serotinal and autumnal in 1999. Epigallocatechin (EGC), Epicatechin (EPC) and caffeine were assayed using standard methods. The concentration of these constituents was found to be highest in the vernal samples at 180 kg/hec/annum of N treatment. Caffeine was found to be directly proportional to N fertilizer applied. Latitude was found to have pronounced effect on all tea leaf constituents. The crop plucked at 1500 m elevation had much higher concentration of these constituents than for the crop plucked at 1000 m elevation. Analysis of variance showed that increasing nitrogen treatments and different seasons had a significant influence (p<0.05) on EGC, EPC and caffeine level of tea leaves at both localities. The results show that tea produced in Pakistan contains constituents in premium concentration highly desirable for black tea processing.

779-790 Download
13
EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS ON M1 GENERATION IN BASMATI RICE
MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA, MUHAMMAD RASHID AND ZIA-UL-QAMAR

EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS ON M1 GENERATION IN BASMATI RICE
ABSTRACT:
To estimate the sensitivity to gamma rays in Basmati rice, five varieties namely Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, Basmati 385, Super Basmati and Basmati 2000 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays ranging 150-350 Gy with an increment of 50 Gy among the doses. Plant growth parameters such as seedling shoot and root lengths were measured in the laboratory. Highly significant differences were observed among the varieties for seedling shoot and root lengths. Radiations showed highly significant negative correlations with seedling shoot length (-0.998), seedling root length (-0.941) showing dose dependent responses. Highly significant negative correlations with panicle fertility (-0.941) and grain yield (-0.971), and significant negative correlation for seedling emergence (-0.941) showed detrimental dose dependent responses. Seedling emergence, panicle fertility and grain yield declined with increasing dose level in all the varieties. The dose at which panicle fertility halved was 260.37 Gy. Basmati 2000 was observed to be the most sensitive followed by Basmati 370, Super Basmati and Basmati Pak, but Basmati 385 was found to be the least sensitive variety to gamma rays.

791-795 Download
14
ACCUMULATION AND REDUCTION OF Cr (VI) IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT BY BACILLUS SP. STRAIN CrM-1
MUHAMMAD FAISAL AND SHAHIDA HASNAIN

ACCUMULATION AND REDUCTION OF Cr (VI) IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT BY BACILLUS SP. STRAIN CrM-1
ABSTRACT:
A Gram-positive, spore forming Bacillus sp. strain CrM-1 was isolated from chromium-contaminated site that could resist up to 40 µg mL-1 of K2CrO4 on nutrient agar and 25 µg mL-1 in nutrient broth. The strain showed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances and was able to accumulate chromate both by metabolic-dependent active uptake and energy independent passive uptake. Uptake of chromate was maximum in living cells as compared to heat-killed and dried cells. It reduced 92.25 %, 67.44 % and 25.27 % of Cr (VI) at an initial chromate concentration of 100, 500, and 1000 µg mL-1after 24 hours with an inoculum size of 2.47 cells mL-1. Different heavy metals at low concentrations did not affect the reduction potential of the strain. The strain was able to reduce 96.66 % and 79.23 % of Cr (VI) present in industrial effluent that contained initial Cr (VI) concentration of 150 and 300 µg mL-1, respectively.

797-804 Download
15
HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF HEDERA HELIX L. LEAVES AND THE POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF ACTION
MUHAMMAD IBRAR, IHSAN ILAHI* AND FARRUKH HUSSAIN*

HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF HEDERA HELIX L. LEAVES AND THE POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF ACTION
ABSTRACT:
The present study showed that both the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Hedera helix L. were hypoglycemic, reducing the blood glucose level in both the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits to significant levels. Trace element analysis of the leaves showed that Hedera helix L. leaves contain the "hypoglycemic trace elements" (Chromium, Manganese & Zinc) in sufficiently large amounts and these have played the main role in reducing the blood glucose level.

805-809 Download
16
DEVELOPMENT OF BASMATI RICE VARIETIES THROUGH THE USE OF INDUCED MUTATIONS AND RELATED TECHNIQUES
MUHAMMAD RASHID, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF, ZIA-UL-QAMAR AND ZAHID MAHMOOD

DEVELOPMENT OF BASMATI RICE VARIETIES THROUGH THE USE OF INDUCED MUTATIONS AND RELATED TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
Several short stature (20-40 %), early flowering (7-21 days earlier) and long grain mutants/recombinants have been developed at NIAB through induced mutations and other breeding techniques in the traditional Basmati rice. The mutants with desired traits were hybridized with the traditional Basmati, which resulted in the derivation of desirable progenies showing good hybrid vigour. In the selected progenies of M 4 generation, mutants showed significant reduction in plant height (18.29-33.62 %). The mutant 39-1 which was short statured as compared to its counterparts, produced maximum productive tillers/plant (17.6) and outyielded along with some other mutants 15-2 and 15-3 as compared to their counterparts and checks. All the mutants possessed increased paddy length (10.00 mm-10.76 mm) and outclassed their respective parents exhibiting high L/W ratio. The recombinants exhibited improvement in grain yield due mainly to greater number of tillers per plant and increased spike fertility percentage. The physical grain quality parameters of paddy length, paddy width and their L/W ratio were also superior. From the yield trial, one of the mutants (EF-1-20-5-99) flowered 14 days earlier than the parent (Basmati-370) and standard Super Basmati and Basmati-2000 may be used in hybridization for the development of recombinants with even more desirable traits.

811-818 Download
17
PRESENCE OF RHIZOBIA IN THE XYLARY ELEMENTS OF ROOT NODULES IN SAMANEA SAMAN (JACQ.) MERR.
RAIHA QADRI AND A. MAHMOOD

PRESENCE OF RHIZOBIA IN THE XYLARY ELEMENTS OF ROOT NODULES IN SAMANEA SAMAN (JACQ.) MERR.
ABSTRACT:
The paper reports the morphogenesis and anatomy of root nodules. The nodules were distributed singly as well as in clusters on the main and lateral roots of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. Young nodules were globose whereas mature nodules were elongated, branched and coralloid. Rhizobia entered the root via root hair and formed infection thread. An interesting character was observed in the young nodules of S. saman where bacteria entered through the root hair and multiplied within the epidermal cell. From there they invaded into the cortical region by intracellular movement by dissolving middle lamella. Presence of bacteria inside, and their movement through xylary elements is being reported for the first time in a tree legume.

819-823 Download
18
IN-VITRO MUTAGENESIS IN GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.)
R. ZAMIR, G. S. S. KHATTAK, T. MOHAMMAD, S. A. SHAH, A.J. KHAN AND N. ALI

IN-VITRO MUTAGENESIS IN GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.)
ABSTRACT:
In-vitro mutagenesis followed by micro propagation via axillary bud proliferation in shoot tips of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivar Safeda was carried out. Shoot tips were irradiated with 15 to 90 Gy gamma rays using 60Co gamma cell source and cultured on MS medium containing 3.0 % sucrose, 6-benzyleamino purine (BAP), and L-glutamine. The shoot proliferation was observed after 7 weeks of culturing. Best shoot proliferation was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg /L (BAP) and 250 mg/L L-glutamine. Rooting of the cultured shoots were observed on half strength MS medium supplemented with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Radio sensitivity was assessed by determining the percentage shoot tips survival and shoot proliferation. The LD50 (the dose at which 50 % of the population killed) was observed on 45 Gy. The doses above 75 Gy were found lethal to explants.

825-828 Download
19
IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF COFFEA ARABICA
SARWAT ISMAIL, BEENA NAQVI, NAHEED ANWAR AND RABIA ZUBERI

IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF COFFEA ARABICA
ABSTRACT:
This study was conducted to develop a micropropagation protocol for Coffea arabica, one of the most economically important plant for coffee production. Apical and axillary buds and leaf explants were cultured in modified MS medium and incubated at 28°C ± 1°C temperature in both light and dark conditions. The apical bud incubated in the medium supplemented with coconut water and L-Cysteine HCl (10 mg/L) gave the best results. Coconut water promotes growth whereas L-Cysteine HCl inhibits oxidation of phenolic compounds in the medium.

829-834 Download
20
EVIDENCE OF NUTRIENT INDUCED SPORE GERMINATION IN BACTERIA FROM STRESS ENVIRONMENT
UQBA MEHMOOD AND SHAHIDA HASNAIN

EVIDENCE OF NUTRIENT INDUCED SPORE GERMINATION IN BACTERIA FROM STRESS ENVIRONMENT
ABSTRACT:
During unfavorable conditions many bacteria ensure their survival through spore formation, which germinate on restoration of suitable conditions. Defects in sporulation may be associated with inability of spores to germinate. Here are reported results of four Bacillus strains Gd64, Gd90, Gd213 and Gd208, isolated from saline environment. The spores of these strains appeared to be germination defective. To probe the defect analysis, both ALA and AGFK systems were executed. Different germinants such as L-Glutamine, L-Valine, L-Isoleucine, DL-Phenylalanine, and DL-Proline were substituted for L-Alanine and L-Asparagines in ALA and AGFK systems respectively. Results reveal that germination defective spores showed better response in AGFK system than ALA system, while germinants L-Glutamine, DL-Proline and DL-Phenylalanine exhibited better percentage germination than L-alanine and L-Asparagines. So there may be more than one mutation involved in germination defect.

835-842 Download
21
GENETIC VARIABILITY TO ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENTS AND COMPOSITION IN FIVE SPECIES OF EUCALYPTUS
ZAFAR IQBAL, IMTIAZ HUSSAIN*, A. HUSSAIN AND M. YASIN ASHRAF

GENETIC VARIABILITY TO ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENTS AND COMPOSITION IN FIVE SPECIES OF EUCALYPTUS
ABSTRACT:
Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensi, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus crebra and Eucalyptus tereticornis were extracted by hydro-distillation. Maximum oil (1.47 %) was found in E. crebra and minimum (0.58 %) in E. tereticornis. Specific gravity of the oils ranged between 0.86 to 0.91, refractive index 1.42 to 1.44 and optical rotation -12.3 to 3.63 at 25 oC. Extracted oils were resolved and identified by GC/FID on Carbowex-20 M packed glass column. Maximum components (21) were detected in E.crebra and minimum (15) in E. citriodora and E. globulus oils, whereas in the oils of E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis 16 and 19 components were resolved respectively. In E. camaldulensis, E. globulus and E. tereticornis oils five components (α -pinene, 3∆carene, ß-phellandrene

843-852 Download
22
HALOPHYTIC PLANT DIVERSITY OF SOUTH AEGEAN COASTAL ZONE IN TURKEY
A. GUVENSEN AND M. OZTURK

HALOPHYTIC PLANT DIVERSITY OF SOUTH AEGEAN COASTAL ZONE IN TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
Halophytic flora of approximately 2500 km long Aegean coastal zone situated between Dikili (Izmir) and Fethiye (Mugla) was investigated. In all 78 plant taxa were determined from this area. Families with highest number of taxa were Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae and Plumbaginaceae with dominating genera like: Limonium, Chenopodium, Plantago, Tamarix and Juncus. The representative species recorded were Arthrocnemum fruticosum, Halimione portulacoides, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Hordeum marinum var. marinum, Juncus acutus, J. maritimus, Limonium bellidifolium, L. sieberi, Petrosimonia brachiata, Polypogon monspeliensis, Salicornia europaea, Suaeda prostrata subsp. prostrata and Tamarix species. The percentage distribution of the phytogeographical elements was; 15.38 % Mediterranean, 8.98 % Euro-Siberian, 3.85 % Irano-Turanian

853-864 Download
23
RESPONSE OF FEW NEWLY DEVELOPED SALT-TOLERANT WHEAT LANDRACE SELECTIONS UNDER NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
A.R. MAHAR, J.A. MEMON¹ , S.A. ABRO AND P.A. HOLLINGTON²

RESPONSE OF FEW NEWLY DEVELOPED SALT-TOLERANT WHEAT LANDRACE SELECTIONS UNDER NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Performance of five selected wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and a local variety as a check were studied during 1990-2001 at Agriculture Research Sub-Station Kot Deji, District Khairpur. The experiment was conducted at three different sites having salinity of 4, 6.5 and 7.8 dSm-1, respectively. Taller plants were produced by CAZS1a while significantly long spikes with more seeds per spike and higher grain weight were produced by CAZS2. Site-I with low salinity produced taller plants (P < 0.05), more spike and significantly higher grains. While the lowest values for all the parameters were recorded at Site three, which was due to higher salinity. Salt tolerance ranking based on grain weight was CAZS2 > CAZS1a > TJ-83 > CAZS1b > CAZS3 > CAZS4. The study suggests that at higher salinity (Site-III), the CAZS2 has potential of producing economic yield while at low salinity (Site-I), CAZS1a, CAZS1b and local variety are equally effective.

865-869 Download
24
SALT AND DROUGHT STRESS IN WHEAT AND THE ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID
ASGHARI BANO AND NADIA AZIZ

SALT AND DROUGHT STRESS IN WHEAT AND THE ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID
ABSTRACT:
The effects of different concentrations (150 mM and 300 mM) of NaCl alone or in combination with drought stress were determined on six wheat varieties. Among them, four varieties viz. E-38, E-37, E-2 and E-30 were newly released, whereas Lu-26 and Pasban-90 were commercial varieties. The plants were grown in pots under natural conditions with protective measures against rain. Drought was induced for 7d to salt stressed plants at three-leaf stage by withholding the supply of salt/water (in case of control). The response of salt and drought were studied on growth parameters and yield of wheat. The proline contents of leaves and the concentration of abscisic acid and giberrellic acid were also measured at three leaf stage. The increasing concentration of NaCl had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth parameters. Relatively sensitive varieties i.e. Pasban-90 and E-38 were markedly affected, whereas, the relatively tolerant varieties Lu-26 and E-30 were the least affected by either concentration of NaCl and performed better with respect to both yield parameters and biochemical characteristics. The combined effect of salt and drought was more inhibitory than salt alone. Both the proline and ABA contents were greater in Lu-26 and in E-30 treated with 300 mM NaCl. The role of ABA and proline in salt and drought stress has been discussed.

871-883 Download
25
EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND OSMOTICA IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF SALICORNIA UTAHENSIS
BILQUEES GUL* AND M. AJMAL KHAN*

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS AND OSMOTICA IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF SALICORNIA UTAHENSIS
ABSTRACT:
Salicornia utahensis Tiderstrom is a perennial halophyte from the family Chenopodiaceae and is widely distributed in brackish water playas of northern Utah. Salicornia utahensis produces seeds under high salinity and deposits its seed on saline soil. Seeds showed only 65 % germination in distilled water. Seed germination decreased with the increase in salinity and less than 5 % seeds germinated at 900 mM NaCl. We determined the role of germination regulating chemicals in alleviating salinity stress. This germination was substantially enhanced with the inclusion of ethephon, fusicoccin (FC), and kinetin, under saline conditions while gibberellic acid, thiourea, proline and betaine had little effect. Rate of germination showed a similar pattern with that of percentage germination.

885-894 Download
26
EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER SALINE WATER IRRIGATION
HUMAIRA GUL AND RAFIQ AHMAD

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH OF CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS L.) UNDER SALINE WATER IRRIGATION
ABSTRACT:
Effect of nitrogen fertilizer providing two different doses of urea (@ 150 and 250 kg/ha) were investigated on the growth of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Oscar) under saline water irrigation of different sea salt concentrations. Plants were subjected to control (non-saline), 0.4 % (EC 4.5 dS.m-1) and 0.6 % (EC 6.5 dS.m-1) of sea salt concentrations with and without N amendment. Vegetative growth was recorded in terms of plant height, number of leaves and branches, fresh and dry shoot biomass per plant, while reproductive growth was noted in terms of number of flowers and siliquae per plant; siliquae weight; seed number and weight per siliquae; seed number and weight per plant. Plant growth on vegetative as well as reproductive phases was found proportionately inhibited with respect of increasing salinity in irrigation water. Amendment of urea @ 150 and 250 kg/ha had beneficial effect in non-saline as well as under saline conditions. The amount of chlorophyll decreased under saline conditions without N amendment while plants supplemented with urea exhibited an increase in chlorophyll. Total sugars and proteins exhibited an increase under N amendment in control as well as in saline conditions. Among mineral composition (Na+ and K+), Na+ showed increase while others exhibited a decrease in different salinity levels with or without N amendment. Reproductive yield was comparatively more in N amended plants whereas it was considerably decreased in plants grown under salinity without N amendment.

895-909 Download
27
PROLINE AND WATER STATUS OF SOME DESERT SHRUBS BEFORE AND AFTER RAIN
IRFAN AZIZ AND M. AJMAL KHAN*

PROLINE AND WATER STATUS OF SOME DESERT SHRUBS BEFORE AND AFTER RAIN
ABSTRACT:
Four desert shrubs (Abutilon indicum, Aerva javanica, Calotropis procera and Senna holosericea) commonly found in Karachi and its vicinity were studied for the plant water status and proline content during rainy and dry periods. Succulence in all plants increased after rainfall and this increase was substantial in Calotropis procera. Senna holosericea maintained more negative water potential while it was less negative in Calotropis procera. Proline content substantially decreased in all species after rainfall and in the case of Senna holosericea it decreased from about 330 to less than 140 m mol. L-1 plant water. Our data clearly indicate that increase in proline is related to increase in drought stress.

911-915 Download
28
ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY-ENFORCED SEED DORMANCY IN ATRIPLEX PROSTRATA
M. AJMAL KHAN* , IRWIN A. UNGAR** AND BILQUEES GUL

ALLEVIATION OF SALINITY-ENFORCED SEED DORMANCY IN ATRIPLEX PROSTRATA
ABSTRACT:
Atriplex prostrata (Chenopodiaceae) is a salt tolerant plant species that is widely distributed in inland and coastal salt marshes of the United States and Europe. Atriplex prostrata (Chenopodiaceae) seed germination decreased with an increase in salinity and few seeds germinated at 300 mM NaCl. Fusicoccin (5 mM), ethephon (10 mM), and nitrogenous compounds (nitrate 20 mM and thiourea 10 mM) were able to counteract the inhibition produced by salinity treatments. Thiourea was most effective in reversing the inhibitory effects of salinity on the germination of A. prostrata seeds.

917-923 Download
29
A STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COCOS NUCIFERA L. (COCONUT) WATER AND ITS USEFULNESS AS REHYDRATION FLUID
M. NASIRUDDIN KHAN*, MUTI-UR-REHMAN AND KHURRAM WAZIR KHAN

A STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COCOS NUCIFERA L. (COCONUT) WATER AND ITS USEFULNESS AS REHYDRATION FLUID
ABSTRACT:
Coconut water was evaluated as rehydration fluid in diarrhoea. Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace the fluid loss from gastrointestinal tract. To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the coconut water, the analysis of the electrolytes, Glucose, osmolarity and pH were performed in the local samples. This study showed high variability in coconut water composition during maturation and area of cultivation. On comparison, oral rehydration salt (ORS) and sport drinks would give more sodium and chloride than the coconut water; however, the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than ORS owing to the high level of glucose. The addition of table salt to the coconut water is suggested to compensate for the sodium and chloride deficiency. In conclusion, ingestion of fresh young coconut water, a natural sterilized beverage, could be used for rehydration during mild diarrhoea.

925-930 Download
30
EFFECTS OF AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION ON THE PHENOLOGY AND PERIODICITY OF SOME ROADSIDE PLANTS
MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ* AND MUHAMMAD ZAFAR IQBAL

EFFECTS OF AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION ON THE PHENOLOGY AND PERIODICITY OF SOME ROADSIDE PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The phenology of Alstonia scholaris and Pongamia pinnata was significantly (p<0.05) affected in the Karachi city polluted environment. Plants were highly affected by pollutants at Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Nazimabad, Shahrah-e-Faisal and M.A. Jinnah Road as compared to Karachi University Campus. Leaf length, width and area of A. scholaris were found lowest in July-September at M.A. Jinnah Road as compared to Shahrah-e-Faisal, Nazimabad, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Karachi University Campus, respectively. Leaf length, width and area of P. pinnata were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in January-March at the highly polluted sites of M.A. Jinnah Road as compared to Karachi University Campus. In this study, A. scholaris was comparatively less affected to automobile pollution of the city as compared to P. pinnata. It is, therefore, suggested that A. scholaris should be given more preference for future plantation in the city areas, particularly along the roads.

931-938 Download
31
EFFECT OF GERMINATION REGULATING CHEMICALS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY INDUCED GERMINATION INHIBITION OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII SEEDS
SABAHAT ZIA AND M. AJMAL KHAN *

EFFECT OF GERMINATION REGULATING CHEMICALS IN ALLEVIATING SALINITY INDUCED GERMINATION INHIBITION OF LIMONIUM STOCKSII SEEDS
ABSTRACT:
Effect of different chemicals: kinetin (0.05 mM), ethephon (5 µM), GA3 (0.3 mM), proline (0.1 mM), betaine (0.1 mM), nitrate (10 mM) and thiourea (5 mM) was investigated in alleviating salinity enforced seed dormancy from Limonium stocksii. Six salinity regimes (0-500 mM NaCl) were used in 12 h photoperiod and in complete darkness to study the effect of different germination regulating chemicals in inducing germination under saline condition. Only kinetin and ethephon successfully alleviated salinity enforced seed dormancy of L. stocksii. Kinetin was more successful than ethephon. Seed germination was substantially inhibited by salinity when germinated under complete darkness. Kinetin and ethephon appeared to be the only chemicals which improved seed germination in complete darkness. All other germination regulating chemicals had no effect at low salinity but inhibited germination at high salinity in both light and dark.

939-948 Download
32
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF COTTON ROOTS AT VARIOUS SOIL TEXTURES UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ZAHIDA NAVEED GOHAR, RAFIQ AHMAD AND HUMAIRA GUL

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF COTTON ROOTS AT VARIOUS SOIL TEXTURES UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
The effect of sandy and clayey loams was studied on the growth and development of roots of cotton seedlings at different soil salinity levels. Plastic bags were filled with soils of different textures and made saline with 0.4 % (EC 4.44 dS/m in sandy loam, 5.45 dS/m in clayey loam) and 0.8 % (EC 8.2 dS/m in sandy loam, 9.05 dS/m in clay loam) dilutions of sea salt. Seven days old seedlings were transplanted in these plastic bags and allowed to grow for forty days. The soil was later washed out from the roots very carefully leaving undamaged root system at sieve, which was examined thoroughly. Roots were found thicker in clayey loam as compared to sandy loam, but in both the cases root thickness decreased with an increase in salinity. Primary roots were longer in sandy loam in control and 0.4 % soil salinity, but at 0.8 % soil salinity it was longer in clayey loam. Number of secondary roots was comparatively more in sandy loam at 0.4 % salinity treatment, but at 0.8 % salinity treatment it was more in clayey loam. Average length of secondary roots was longer in clayey loam. Tertiary root development was much more in clayey loam but decreased with the increasing salinity in both the soil textures. Root and shoot biomass, height of seedlings and number of leaves were comparatively more in clayey loam. Salinity did affect the shoot growth but over all it was much better in clayey loam, in above mentioned range of salinity than that of sandy loam.

949-959 Download
33
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VERTICILLIUM ALBOATRUM STRAIN MORPHOGENESIS AND MOLECULAR FINGERPRINTS
A. H. SHAIKH AND J. B. HEALE*

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VERTICILLIUM ALBOATRUM STRAIN MORPHOGENESIS AND MOLECULAR FINGERPRINTS
ABSTRACT:
Morphological characteristics of three different groups of isolates of Verticillium alboatrum which had previously been differentiated on the basis of rDNA polymorphism and mtDNA RFLPS, were studied. Nature and extent of variability differed between different groups of isolates. Statistically significant differences were observed in mean phialide count (MPC), mean phialide size (MPSz) and mean interverticil distance (MIVD), among groups of V. alboatrum. Highest MPC was noticed in group 1b (3.21) as compared to lowest in group 1a (2.10). The MPSz was largest in group 1a (47.40 µm) and lowest in group 2 (31.19 mm). Highest MIVD was observed in group 1a and group 2 (50.40 and 49.37 mm, respectively) with lowest in group 1b and group 3 (36.6 and 38.47 µm, respectively).

961-966 Download
34
IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF PLANT EXTRACTS AND ANTAGONISTIC FUNGI AGAINST XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CITRI (HASSE) DYE
F. IQRAM, M. A. KHAN AND S. M. KHAN

IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF PLANT EXTRACTS AND ANTAGONISTIC FUNGI AGAINST XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CITRI (HASSE) DYE
ABSTRACT:
Sensitivity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri was tested by dual culture plate assays using 10 plant extracts viz. Acacia modesta (Phulai), Acacia nilotica (Babool), Allium sativum (Garlic), Bougainvillea spectabilis (Bougainvillea), Dalbergia sisso (Shisham), Datura alba (Dhatura), Eucalyptus cameldulensis (Sufeda), Ficus religiosa (Pipal), Olea europaea (Olive) and Phyllanthus emblic (Emblic) and six antagonistic fungi viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Baeuveria bassiana, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma harzianum and Verticillium chlamydosporium. Except Ficus religiosa, all the plant extracts at standard concentration (75 g fresh leaves + 25 mL sterilized water) reduced the multiplication of X. camp. pv. citri significantly compared to control. Alium sativum was the best followed by A. nilotica, D. alba, D. sisso and A. modesta inducing 43

967-970 Download
35
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI WITH TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM
GULNAZ MALIK AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ROOT INFECTING FUNGI WITH TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM
ABSTRACT:
Trichoderma harzianum inoculum multiplied on different substrates viz. rice grain, sorghum grain, millet grain and sawdust were used in the control of root infecting fungi on chickpea and mashbean. This inoculum after multiplication on sorghum grain, millet grain and rice grain, as used @1 % w/w in soils showed better result in reducing infection of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium spp. on chick pea and mash bean as compared to 5 % and 10 % inoculum multiplied on saw dust, which did not show better results.

971-975 Download
36
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 ON THE EGG HATCHABILITY, ADULT EMERGENCE AND POPULATION OF BEMISIA TABACI AND COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS SEVERITY
M. ASLAM KHAN, Q. NADEEM, S. M. KHAN AND M. A. NASIR

EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 ON THE EGG HATCHABILITY, ADULT EMERGENCE AND POPULATION OF BEMISIA TABACI AND COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS SEVERITY
ABSTRACT:
Salicylic acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) at 2 and 3 % concentrations were drenched in pots in wooden cages covered with muslin cloth and as foliar sprays under field conditions on cotton cvs. S-14 and NIAB-Krishma. Bemisia tabaci collected from virus infected plants were released on these plants placed in wooden cages. Data recorded one day before spray and then 24, 48 and 72 hrs after spray on egg hatchability, adult emergence, adult whitefly population and CLCuV severity were recorded at the end of the experiment and statistically analysed. Seven samples from each of the treated and control plants of S-14 and NIAB-Krishma were collected and their protein contents were estimated by Kjeldahl method. Salicylic acid at 3 % concentration proved to be the best in reducing egg hatchability, adult emergence, adult whitefly population and severity of CLCuV and increasing different levels of proteins viz. thaumatin, ß 1, 4-gluconasis and chitinasis in S-14 and NIAB-Krishma. KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 applied at 3 % concentration also significantly reduced egg hatchability, adult emergence and whitefly population and CLCuV severity compared to control.

977-981 Download
37
EVALUATION OF FURNACE OIL AND NEEM BASED PRODUCTS TO MANAGE BEMISIA TABACI AND LEAF CURL VIRUS ON COTTON
M. ASLAM KHAN, M. AFZAAL AND M. A. NASIR

EVALUATION OF FURNACE OIL AND NEEM BASED PRODUCTS TO MANAGE BEMISIA TABACI AND LEAF CURL VIRUS ON COTTON
ABSTRACT:
Nimbokil applied at 3 % concentration was found most effective in reducing egg hatchability, adult emergence, whitefly population and CLCuV severity on S-14 and NIAB-Krishma, respectively. Furnace oil applied at 2 and 3 % concentration was also effective in controlling Bemisia tabaci and CLCuV compared to untreated control. However, Nimbokil at 0.5 and 1 % and furnace oil at 1 and 2 % concentrations were statistically at par in reducing white fly population and CLCuV severity on both the cultivars.

983-986 Download
38
COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GARLIC EXTRACT AND STREPTOMYCINE SULPHATE AGAINST XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CITRI (HASSE) DYE IN VITRO, AND ON THE CONTROL OF CITRUS CANKER IN GREEN HOUSE
M. ASLAM KHAN, F. IQRAM AND A. RASHID

COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF GARLIC EXTRACT AND STREPTOMYCINE SULPHATE AGAINST XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CITRI (HASSE) DYE IN VITRO, AND ON THE CONTROL OF CITRUS CANKER IN GREEN HOUSE
ABSTRACT:
Streptomycine sulphate and garlic (Alium sativum) extract were tested at different concentrations against the multiplication of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri on nutrient agar using dual culture assays. The effective concentration and their combination was then applied on the greenhouse grown citrus plants inoculated with the strain of bacterium tested in lab. The antibiotic and garlic extract inhibited the bacterial multiplication at all doses significantly (P<0.05) compared to control. Streptomycine sulphate at 1 % was most effective followed by 0.2 % and 0.1 % concentration against the multiplication X. camp. pv. citri. Garlic extract used at standard dose (S), S/5 and S/10 significantly inhibited the multiplication of X. camp. pv. citri compared to control but it was more effective when used with 0.1 % concentration of streptomycine sulphate. Thus streptomycine sulphate + Alium sativum at 0.1 % + S concentration, were the best in reducing the growth of bacterium followed by 0.1 % and S/5 and 0.1 % + S/10 combinations. Garlic extract proved effective in vitro but was not so effective on the inoculated plants grown in green house. However, its application at S/10 concentration plus 0.1 % concentration of streptomycine sulphate reduced 51.3 % canker disease over control compared to 60 % reduction in disease by the application of streptomycine sulphate alone (at 1 % concentration).

987-991 Download
39
INCIDENCE OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF RICE IN PAKISTAN DURING 2002
MUHAMMAD AFZAL AKHTAR, MUHAMMAD ZAKRIA, FIDA MUHAMMAD ABBASI1 AND M ASIF MASOOD2

INCIDENCE OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF RICE IN PAKISTAN DURING 2002
ABSTRACT:
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice incited by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae created a serious situation in rice during the crop year 2002. It occurs at all stages of the crop and shows either kresek or leaf blight symptoms. If plant produces panicles, the sterility percentage increases as well as the number of immature grains. Grains from diseased plants are easily broken during milling. When there is heavy infection, no grain formation takes place. This survey was conducted during the crop year 2002 in Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, NWFP and Azad Jammu & Kashmir to study the latest situation of this menace. In Punjab the incidence (% of infected plants) of bacterial blight ranges from 15-100

993-997 Download
40
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.
N. ANJUM AND Z. KHAN

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.
ABSTRACT:
The present work was carried out to study the comparative antimicrobial activity of pure solvents, standard antibiotic discs viz. Amikacine, Ciprofloxacin, Griseofulvin and solvent extracts of Cuscuta reflexa against Gram (-) bacteria viz. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Gram (+) bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Bacilus licheniformis and fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma ressei. On the whole all the crude solvent extracts were found to be more resistant against test organisms. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts appeared to be the most effective antifungal and antibacterial agents.

999-1007 Download
41
EFFECT OF ANTIHELMINTH DRUGS ON ROOT KNOT NEMATODES
SHAISTA JAVED AND M. JAVED ZAKI

EFFECT OF ANTIHELMINTH DRUGS ON ROOT KNOT NEMATODES
ABSTRACT:
Some allopathic and homoeopathic drugs were evaluated against, Meloidogyne incognita root knot nematode. Significant reduction in hatching of eggs was observed with Katrex (99 %) followed by T-26 (94 %) after 96 hrs. All the test drugs showed significant larval mortality and reduced invasion of tomato roots by root knot nematodes.

1009-1013 Download
42
OCCURRENCE OF SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA IN SOILS OF POTATO GROWING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
SHAMIM IFTIKHAR, IFTIKHAR AHMAD AND ABDUL HAMEED*

OCCURRENCE OF SPONGOSPORA SUBTERRANEA IN SOILS OF POTATO GROWING AREAS OF PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Powdery scab of potato caused by Spongospora subterranea (Wallr.) Lagerheim has been reported in Pakistan in 1980's. The fungus which is a vector of potato mop-top virus remains in soil for long period and is also seed borne. Once the pathogen is introduced in an uncontaminated area it is difficult to eradicate. The presence of S. subterranea has recently been confirmed in soil of Astak valley of Northern Pakistan. During a survey all the 6 potato production agro-ecological zones including Central Punjab (zone 2), Northern Punjab (zone 3), NWFP (zone 4), Kaghan, Kalam and Chitral valley (zone 6), Gilgit and Skardu (zone 7) and Balochistan (zone 8) were found infected with S. subterranea.The highest infested locations are in Chitral valley and in Northern Punjab. Gilgit has lowest infested locations. The soils of two major seed producing areas of Gilgit including Gupis and Yasin districts are still free of S. subterranea.

1015-1025 Download
43
EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE COLONIZATION OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA (TASSI) GOID. ON ROOTS OF MASH BEAN
TARIQ HUSAIN AND ABDUL GHAFFAR*

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE ON THE COLONIZATION OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA (TASSI) GOID. ON ROOTS OF MASH BEAN
ABSTRACT:
Plants showed vigorous growth of root and shoot system in unstressed natural soil and also soil artificially infested with sclerotia of Macrophomina phaseolina compared to stress conditions. In stress and soil artificially infested with M. phaseolina the plants showed black colouring and withering of aerial parts after 30 days' growth. Colonization of M. phaseolina was more on primary roots compared to the secondary roots in early stages, whereas, at later stages of plant growth the secondary roots were more infested. The colonization was more in artificially infested soil compared to natural soil.

1027-1031 Download
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