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Year 2011 , Volume  43, Issue 2
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1
MICROSATELLITE DIVERSITY AMONG TUNISIAN DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) SUBPOPULATIONS
HAMZA HAMMADI1, GIOVANNI GIUSEPPI VENDRAMIN2 AND FERCHICHI ALI1

MICROSATELLITE DIVERSITY AMONG TUNISIAN DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) SUBPOPULATIONS
ABSTRACT:
Phoenix dactylifera L. is native to the southern of Tunisia where it is the most important crop. The aim of this study is to assess the diversity in Tunisian date palm cultivars using molecular markers. The use of reliable and stable vegetative features on 26 cultivars showed clusters characterized also by fruit traits such as consistency and maturity period. Microsatellites analysis supports this statement and it was carried out by using markers with high polymorphism. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant genetic variation among fruit subpopulations (p < 0.05). Semi soft fruit subpopulation has significant differentiation with soft and semi dry fruit subpopulations. These results suggest that continental Tunisian date palm cultivars are not a unique population which is in opposition with a unique one ancestral date-palm population and this result is the first to be published in P. dactylifera.

-1264 Download
2
OBITUARY - PROF. MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN (11th January 1930 – 16th January 2011)
Dr. Mohammed Nizamuddin (Malick), a renowned phycologist and world authority on brown algae silently expired in the morning of Sunday, the 16th January 2011 at the residence of his youngest daughter in Karachi. May God Almighty shower his choicest blessi

OBITUARY - PROF. MOHAMMED NIZAMUDDIN (11th January 1930 – 16th January 2011)
ABSTRACT:
Prof. Nizmuddin was born on 11th January 1930 at Atsar, Bihar, British India as 1st son of Mr. Abdul Ghafoor a landlord of famous Malick family. During infancy he lost his father and was taken care by the sister of his father. He passed High School examination in 1945 from Kosi, Nawada, Distt. Gaya, Bihar and was married to a relative, Ms. Akhtari Jahan Begum in 1946. Then he struggled for livelihood (as school teacher) as well as further education and completed his B.Sc. degree in 1950 from Patna University, Bihar. He migrated to Pakistan and joined City High School in Karachi as a teacher. After the establishment of Karachi University in 1952 he offered his services 1952 in the administrative office. Simultaneously, he worked for his thesis in Mycology under the supervision of Prof. A.A. Anwer and obtained M.Sc. degree in Botany in 1954. Then he went to Australia and completed an excellent research work on the cytology and taxonomy of brown algae in 1960 under a renowned marine phycologist, Prof. H.B.S. Womersley and obtained in April 1961 the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Adelaide. Meanwhile, he was supporting a wife and three children (fourth child was borne after his return). This reveals his drive and struggle for education and research.

729-730 Download
3
POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SOME ONOSMA SPECIES (BORAGINACEAE) FROM TURKEY
RIZA BİNZET*

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SOME ONOSMA SPECIES (BORAGINACEAE) FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
The pollen morphology of nine taxa three of which are endemics belonging to Onosma L. (Boraginaceae); O. orientale, O. halophilum, O. bourgaei, O. chlorotrichum, O. heterophyllum, O. ambigens, O. oreodoxum, O. sintenisii and O. bulbotrichum from Turkey has been investigated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The shape of pollen grains of Onosma is frequently prolate, subprolate and sphaeroidea. The outline in polar view is subrounded and subtriangular. The dimension for the polar length ranges between 13.01-21.57 mm, equatorial width 10.56-20.30 mm, colpi length 8.19-16.58 mm, colpi width 1.69-4.36 mm, pori length 1.05-4.28 mm and pori width 2.52-10.71 mm. The pollen morphology of studied taxa are taxonomically of significant characters. The main pollen morphology differences have been found at the section level, especially in pollen type.

731-741 Download
4
MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON NUTLETS OF SOME ONOSMA L. (BORAGINACEAE) SPECIES FROM TURKEY
OZNUR ERGEN AKCIN1 AND RIZA BINZET2

MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON NUTLETS OF SOME ONOSMA L. (BORAGINACEAE) SPECIES FROM TURKEY
ABSTRACT:
In this study, the nutlet micromorphology of 9 taxa of Turkish Onosma species viz., O. sericeum Willd., O. cassium Boiss., O. rutilum Hub.-Mor., O. sieheanum Hayek, O. albo-roseum Fisch. & Mey. ssp. albo-roseum var. albo-roseum, O. inexspectatum Teppner, O. auriculatum Aucher ex DC.,O. heterophylum Griseb and O. thracicum Velen. was examined using both light and scanning electron microscopy. According to surface ornemantations, three main types, reticulate, rugose and elongated, and 2 subtypes (rugose and rugose-reticulate) were defined and illustrated. Nutlet morphology of the examined specimens exhibits some variation in size and shape. Nutlet size ranges between 2-7 x 1.5-5 mm. Nutlets are ovoid, broadly ovoid oblong-ovoid and bipyrimidate.

743-752 Download
5
A NUMERICAL TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS SEDUM L., FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
GHULAM RASOOL SARWAR AND MUHAMMAD QAISER1

A NUMERICAL TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS SEDUM L., FROM PAKISTAN AND KASHMIR
ABSTRACT:
The phenetic relationship between the species of the genus Sedum L. was investigated. Data from macro and micromorphology, including pollen and seed morphology, chemistry and distribution pattern was utilized. Two distinct groups of taxa are recognized from which one group comprises S. multicaule Wall. ex Lindl., and S. hispanicum L., while other group consists of S. trullipetalum Hook. f. & Thomson S. fischeri Raym. - Hamet and S. oreades (Decne.) Raym. – Hamet. A key of the taxa is provided and distribution maps of the species are also presented.

753-758 Download
6
STUDIES ON ITS SEQUENCES AND SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF OSMANTHUS
LONGDOU LU1*, HONGYING DUAN1, ZHIYUAN LU2, XINWEI LI1, ZHIQIANG DUAN1, AND XIAO SUN2

STUDIES ON ITS SEQUENCES AND SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF OSMANTHUS
ABSTRACT:
In this article, ITS sequences of 20 species in Osmanthus were cloned and researched. It was found that length of ITS sequences ranged from 614bp to 619bp, in which ITS-1 is obviously longer than ITS-2, 5.8S of 20 species is composed of 163bp, and the percentage of G+C in ITS sequence of 20 species is 54.24%-64.56%. Alignment between ITS sequences from 20 species of Osmanthus was performed, and discovered that the similarity coefficient between 20 species is 86.1%-99.7%, the minimum exists between O.suavi and O.attenuatus, the similarity coefficient between O.urceolatus and O.cooperi is the maximum. Furthermore, there are 198 mutation sites and 97 information sites in ITS sequences, respectively 31.53% and 15.45%, and the content of information sites in ITS-2 is more than that in ITS-1. In addition, three MP trees were respectively constructed based on ITS sequences, ITS-1 sequences and ITS-2 sequences

759-771 Download
7
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY, DISTRICT BUNER, PAKISTAN
NAVEED ALAM, Z.K. SHINWARI, MUHAMMAD ILYAS AND ZAHID ULLAH

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHAGHARZAI VALLEY, DISTRICT BUNER, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants was recorded during summer 2004, in 22 villages of Chagharzai valley, District Buner. The study revealed 141 plant species belonging to 120 genera and 26 families are being used as medicine. The local people know the prospect and nature of the plant utilization, through personal experiences and ancestral prescriptions. The study also revealed that old aged people particularly women posses strong folk love of medicinal plants in comparison to young people. It was concluded that some plants are used singly while many other are used in combination. Similarly few plant species are used for the treatment of a specific disease, while several other have multiple uses. The plants were mainly used as stomachic, anti-allergic, anti-neuralgia, vermifuge, narcotic, laxative, anti jaundice, emollient, hypnotic, diuretic, digestive, demulcent, carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, anti-spasmodic, anti-emetic, anti-diabetic, anthelmentic, anodyne and alterative. The present investigation will help in the preservation of indigenous knowledge of the local people, which is depleting day by day.

773-780 Download
8
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF SELECTED PLANT SPECIES OF RATWAL VILLAGE, DISTRICT ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
MEHWISH JAMIL NOOR AND UME KALSOOM

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF SELECTED PLANT SPECIES OF RATWAL VILLAGE, DISTRICT ATTOCK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A survey was carried out about ethno botany of flora of Ratwal Village. It was found that the area is enriched in natural flora and the residents are dependent on this natural resources especially for their food, shelter, fodder, timber, fuel, health care. Data was collected through questionnaire and interview by local people. In total 43 plant species belonging to 33 families were recorded.

781-786 Download
9
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF SOME ELITE PLANTS BELONGING TO DIR, KOHISTAN VALLEY, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ALI HAZRAT1*, MOHAMMAD NISAR1, JEHANDAR SHAH2, AND SHUJAAT AHMAD3

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF SOME ELITE PLANTS BELONGING TO DIR, KOHISTAN VALLEY, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
This article is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research of wild plants of Dir Kohistan Valley, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of ethnobotanicaly important plants of the area. A total 40 species, belonging to 25 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used by the inhabitants in the valley for various diseases.

787-795 Download
10
IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITRAL GOL NATIONAL PARK (CGNP) PAKISTAN
NASRULLAH KHAN1, MOINUDDIN AHMED1, AJAZ AHMED2 S.S. SHAUKAT1, MUHAMMAD WAHAB1, MUHAMMAD AJAIB3 MUHAMMAD FAHEEM SIDDIQUI1 AND MUHAMMAD NASIR

IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITRAL GOL NATIONAL PARK (CGNP) PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
National Parks are diverse habitat for different medicinal plants. So far 21 areas in Pakistan have been declared as National Parks (NP). The present investigations focus on the ethnobotanical study of important medicinal plants of Chitral Gol National Park. The local inhabitants including ethnic groups of Kalash living in the vicinity of the Park have always used the medicinal herbs for various ailments and are dependent on the plants in their surrounding for, food, shelter, health, medicine, fodder and various cultural purposes. A total of 31 trees, herbs and shrubs belonging to 21 families were recorded which are used as fuel, fence and as medicine by the local inhabitants. About 100 informants and local Hakims were interviewed in this regard. Artemisia maritima, Artemisia brevifolia and Rosa webbiana are dominant species suitable for harvesting, while Ephedra gerardiana and Ferula narthex are vulnerable to harvesting. The precious ethnobotanical knowledge is disappearing very fast, so this study could be helpful in conservation of ethnobotanical knowledge.

797-809 Download
11
ANATOMICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF ADONIS VERNALIS L. (RANUNCULACEAE)
IRINA NETA GOSTIN

ANATOMICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF ADONIS VERNALIS L. (RANUNCULACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Adonis vernalis is a pontic element and rare plant distributed in grassland communities in the South-East Europe steppe zone. Histo-anatomical and micromorphological investigations regarding root, stem and leaves was carried out in order to emphasize the adaptation of this species to the living environment. The root acquires early secondary structure by cambium activity; the exodermis shows Casparian bands. Root epidermis consists of cells with thickened walls; the absorbent hairs are absent. The stem has primary structure from the top to the basis. The vascular bundles, of different dimensions are arranged in a circle. Cortical bundles, of collateral and concentric types, were also observed. The sclerenchyma sheaths from the periphery of the vascular bundles become visible at the stem basis. The tector hairs are present only on young leaves. The anatomy of vegetative organs showed some xerophytic structures, but the majority of their features are those of typical mesophytes. These features are correlated with the plant life cycle.

811-820 Download
12
TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY FOR THE TRIBE MUTISIEAE (S.L.) (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
RUBINA ABID AND JAN ALAM*

TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CYPSELA MORPHOLOGY FOR THE TRIBE MUTISIEAE (S.L.) (ASTERACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Cypselas of 5 species distributed in 3 genera of the tribe Mutisieae (s.l.) were examined from Pakistan to assess their taxonomic significance. Micromorphological characters of cypsela including shape, pappus and carpopodium have been proved very rewarding to evaluate the taxonomic decisions both at the generic and specific levels.

821-826 Download
13
POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY AND VIABILITY IN LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA) STANDLEY (CUCURBITACEAE)
SHAUKAT ALI KHAN AND ANJUM PERVEEN

POLLEN GERMINATION CAPACITY AND VIABILITY IN LAGENARIA SICERARIA (MOLINA) STANDLEY (CUCURBITACEAE)
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation of pollen germination and viability pertain to a monoecious species Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley belonging to Cucurbitaceae. The pollen germination was examined up to 48 weeks in different concentrations of sucrose and boric acid solutions using "hanging drop technique". Viability under storage was determined by storing pollen in different humidity conditions in a refrigerator (4oC), freezer (-20°C. -30°C), freeze drier (-60°C). The pollen were also treated in vacuum and in organic solvents. Pollen stored at low temperature showed better percentage of germination compared to pollen stored at 4°C and fresh. Freeze dried pollen (-60°C) showed the highest percentage of germination.

827-830 Download
14
INFLUENCE OF POLLEN SOURCE AND POLLINATION FREQUENCY ON FRUIT DROP, YIELD AND QUALITY OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CV. DHAKKI
MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE1, AHMAD S. KHAN1*, AMAN U. MALIK1, MUHAMAMD SHAHID2, ISHTIAQ A. RAJWANA3, BASHARAT A. SALEEM4, MUHAMMAD AMIN1 AND IFTIKHAR AHMAD1

INFLUENCE OF POLLEN SOURCE AND POLLINATION FREQUENCY ON FRUIT DROP, YIELD AND QUALITY OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) CV. DHAKKI
ABSTRACT:
The study was undertaken to determine the influence of pollen sources and pollination frequency on fruit drop, yield and quality of date palm cv. ‘Dhakki’. Three ‘Dhakki’ female trees and three different male trees (M-1, M-2 and M-3) were selected for the experiment. On each female tree six spathes were chosen and were pollinated with pollens collected from one of the selected male parent. Out of six, three spathes were pollinated once and other three were pollinated twice (second pollination was done two days after first pollination). Data were collected for physico-chemical characteristics of the fruit including fruit drop, fruit weight, flesh weight, seed weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS: TA ratio, sugars, level of ascorbic acid and total phenols. The results indicated that pollen source significantly affected the fruit drop percentage as minimum fruit drop was observed from the tree pollinated with M-3. Physical properties of the fruit like fruit weight, flesh weight and seed weight were significantly improved with pollination from M-1 compared to other male trees. After harvest chemical quality parameters like TSS and TSS: TA ratio, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing sugars were highest in fruit pollinated with M-3 and M-2 respectively. Whereas lowest level of TA was recorded in fruits pollinated with M-3. Pollen source and number of pollinations did not significantly affect the level of total phenols in the date palm fruit. Total and non-reducing sugars were significantly higher in the fruit pollinated twice. In conclusion, the pollen source had significant impact on the physico-chemical properties of date palm cv. ‘Dhakki’. The results suggested that best pollen source (male trees) should be selected for their respective female trees to get most desired characteristics.

831-839 Download
15
DETERMINATION OF POLLEN GRAIN VIABILITY AND GERMINATION LEVELS FOR PISTACHIO AND TEREBINTH IN AYDIN /TURKEY ECOLOGY
GONCA GÜNVER-DALKILIÇ1* AND ÖZDEN DAYI-DOĞRU2

DETERMINATION OF POLLEN GRAIN VIABILITY AND GERMINATION LEVELS FOR PISTACHIO AND TEREBINTH IN AYDIN /TURKEY ECOLOGY
ABSTRACT:
With this research, the viability levels, production potentials, and storage periods of pollen of naturally grown four male terebinth types (Pistacia terebinthus L.) and four male pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) grafted on terebinth trees were determined in Uzunlar Village, Atça District, Aydın Province. For the aim of determining the pollen viability levels, TTC, IKI, and safranine solutions were used. The viability ratio ranged between 88.24% (safranine test) and 70.18% (TTC test) in pistachio trees, between 85.36% (IKI test) and 63.73% (safranine test) in terebinth types. The average amount of pollen within a flower resolved by hemacytometric method was changed between 135 000 and 176 250 depend on species and types. While the germination percentage of pollen of pistachio trees and terebinth types was 71% and 26%, respectively in the beginning of storage, that of pollen in the room conditions after 4th day, in the refrigerator from 10th day and in the deep freezer from 2nd month was decreased to zero.

841-848 Download
16
FIRST REPORT ON THE BIODIVERSITY OF KHUNJERAB NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN
RAHMATULLAH QURESHI1,*, WASEEM AHMAD KHAN2, G.R. BHATTI3, BABAR KHAN4, SHAHID IQBAL4, MOHAMMAD SHAFIQ AHMAD5, MOHAMMAD ABID5 AND ATIF YAQUB6

FIRST REPORT ON THE BIODIVERSITY OF KHUNJERAB NATIONAL PARK, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Biodiversity of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) was carried out during May and June

849-861 Download
17
VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION ALONG HANNA LAKE, BALUCHISTAN USING ORDINATION TECHNIQUES
SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD* AND TAHIRA YASMIN

VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION ALONG HANNA LAKE, BALUCHISTAN USING ORDINATION TECHNIQUES
ABSTRACT:
A survey of natural vegetation along Hanna Lake, Baluchistan was undertaken. The study was conducted with in two distinct zones for clear communities’ demarcation. The vegetation data was analyzed by TWINSPAN and DECORANA, to classify the vegetation into plant communities. Thirty eight species belonging to 16 families were recorded from 20 quadrats of Zone 1 and 36 species belonging to 16 families were recorded from 20 quadrats of Zone 2. Two major and four sub-communities were demarcated by TWINSPAN in both zones. DCA results showed three distinct plant communities in both Zones. Mostly the TWINSPAN and DCA results were similar and the plant communities classified by TWINSPAN were confirmed by DCA. The study provided base line data, information and importance of native plant communities.

863-872 Download
18
ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DIVERSITY IN LEAF TISSUE ARCHITECTURE OF SOME SPECIES/CULTIVARS OF THE GENUS ROSA L.
TAHIRA NAWAZ1, MANSOOR HAMEED1*, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF1,2, F. AL-QURAINY2, M. SAJID AQEEL AHMAD1, ADNAN YOUNIS3 AND MUSLIM HAYAT1

ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DIVERSITY IN LEAF TISSUE ARCHITECTURE OF SOME SPECIES/CULTIVARS OF THE GENUS ROSA L.
ABSTRACT:
Six species/cultivars were selected for the comparative anatomical studies of leaf in the genus Rosa from Faisalabad and adjoining administrative districts. The most widely cultivated R. damascena showed some specific anatomical modifications in leaves such as thick leaves (lamina), thick upper epidermis, large palisade cells, wide protoxylem vessels, large phloem area and large and more stomata particularly on adaxial epidermis. This species showed reduced cortical cell area, lower epidermis thickness, spongy cell area, vascular bundle area and metaxylem area. These characteristics indicated ecological success of this species to a variety of environmental types. The second most widely cultivated species, R. bourboniana ‘Gruss-an-Teplitz’ showed thick leaves (lamina), large cortical cell area, large vascular bundle area, large metaxylem vessels and large phloem area. All the Rosa species/cultivars showed great diversity in leaf tissue architecture, which are the indicators of distribution and ecological success of the genus Rosa in the Punjab plains, particularly Faisalabad environments.

873-883 Download
19
TAGETES ERECTUS L. – A POTENTIAL RESOLUTION FOR MANAGEMENT OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.
SHAZIA SHAFIQUE*, RUKHSANA BAJWA AND SOBIYA SHAFIQUE

TAGETES ERECTUS L. – A POTENTIAL RESOLUTION FOR MANAGEMENT OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS L.
ABSTRACT:
The present study provides an insight of use of Tagetes erectus as it contains herbicidal constituents for the management of Parthenium weed. Herbicidal effects of aqueous shoot, root, flower and soil extracts of allelopathic ornamental plant viz. T. erectus L., was evaluated against germination and growth of noxious alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. Aqueous extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (on fresh weight bases) obtained from aerial parts and rhizospheric soil of T. erectus inhibited germination and seedling growth of P. hysterophorus in bioassays conducted in Petri plates. In foliar spray bioassay, aqueous extracts of aerial plant parts of 10% w/v (on dry weight bases) concentrations were sprayed on one- and two-weeks old pot grown Parthenium seedlings. Two subsequent sprays were carried out at 5 days intervals each. These extracts on pot plants resulted in reduced shoot and root length and biomass. In residue incorporation bioassay, crushed shoots of T. erectus were incorporated in the soil at 1

885-894 Download
20
PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RHIZOMES OF LOTUS (NELUMBO NUCIFERA) FROM PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
MUHAMMAD ASLAM SHAD*, HAQ NAWAZ, MAZHAR HUSSAIN AND BEENA YOUSUF

PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RHIZOMES OF LOTUS (NELUMBO NUCIFERA) FROM PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present studies, the proximate composition and functional properties of rhizome flour of lotus cultivated in the Southern Punjab, Pakistan, were determined. The proximate composition (g/100 g flour) was determined as ash (1.10±0.66), the total nitrogen (1.36±0.04) total protein (8.48±0.25), total sugar (19.08±0.01) and free amino acids (0.78±0.035). The lotus rhizome was found to be a poor source of crude oil (2.68±0.04 g/100 g dry weight). Physico-chemical properties of the oil were investigated as acid value (16.66±3.05 mg KOH), saponification value (110.43±1.97 mg KOH) and unsaponifiable matter (0.026±0.11 g/100 g oil). The temperature dependent behaviour of solubility and swelling capacity of the flour showed a linear increase (1.2±0.35-13.84±0.91%) in solubility but an exponential increase in swelling capacity with a gradual increase in the temperature (40-100˚C). Water absorption and oil holding capacities were found to be 2.56±0.05 and 2.03±0.25% respectively while least gelation concentration, foaming volume increase, foaming stability, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability were investigated as 18.0±2.0, 5.23±0.03, 4.97±0.058, 48.93±0.35 and 96.43±0.51% respectively. The present data may provide a guideline for the use of lotus rhizome flour in food formulation.

895-904 Download
21
IMPROVING WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH SOURCE AND TIMING OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN1, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN2, AHMAD KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ARIF1, FARHATULLAH3, DAWOOD JAN4, MUHAMMAD SAEED AND MOHAMMAD ZAHIR AFRIDI1

IMPROVING WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH SOURCE AND TIMING OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
ABSTRACT:
Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is critical for the improved production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and can be achieved through source and timing of N application. Thus, an experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during 2005-06 to test the effects of sources and timing of N application on yield and yield components of wheat. Nitrogen sources were ammonium (NH4) and nitrate (NO3) applied at the rate of 100 kg ha-1 at three different stages i.e., at sowing (S1), tillering (S2) and boot stage (S3). Ammonium N increased yield component but did not affect the final grain yield. Split N application at sowing, tillering and boot stages had increased productive tillers m-2, and thousand grains weight, whereas grain yield was higher when N was applied at tillering and boot stages. Nitrogen fertilization increased 20% grain yield compared to control regardless of N application time. It was concluded from the experiment that split application of NH4-N performed better than full dose application and/or NO3-N for improved wheat productivity and thus, is recommended for general practice in agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar.

905-914 Download
22
EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ON MAIZE
MUHAMMAD ARIF, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN, MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN, MUHAMMAD SAEED, IQBAL MUNIR, ZIAUDDIN, HABIB AKBAR, SHAHENSHAH AND MUHAMMAD ZAFARULLAH KHAN

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ON MAIZE
ABSTRACT:
Concern for the sustainability of yield and soil fertility has led to a renewed interest in crop rotation and incorporation of crop residues. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of cropping system and residues management on the yield and yield components of maize. The experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar during summer 2002 and was laid out in RCB design with split plot arrangement having four replications. Higher ear length and weight, grains ear-1, grain weight and grain and biological yields were recorded for legume-cereal (chickpea-maize) cropping system followed by cereal-cereal (wheat-maize) cropping system with nitrogen application at the rate of 160 kg N ha-1 to the previous as well as current crops in both cases. However, these parameters were minimal for cereal-cereal (wheat-maize) cropping system with no nitrogen application either in the previous crop or in the current crop. Higher ear length and weight, grain ear-1, grain weight, grain and biological yields were recorded for the plots applied with FYM followed by the plots in which residues were incorporated. The plots in which no residues were incorporated performed poorly and resulted in least values of these parameters. It is concluded that application of farmyard manure at the rate of 10 tons ha-1 in legume cereal cropping system resulted in higher yield and yield component of maize.

915-920 Download
23
MAIZE AS FODDER UNDER CEREALS BASED ROTATION WITH LEGUME AS CATCH CROP AND MINERAL N
GHULAM HABIB1, M.F. HASSAN M.F.2, M. AKMAL1*, S. AHMAD1 AND GHUFRANULLAH2

MAIZE AS FODDER UNDER CEREALS BASED ROTATION WITH LEGUME AS CATCH CROP AND MINERAL N
ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted to compare Pigeon pea (PP) and Sesbania gentia (SG) legumes as catch crop in a permanent cereal based (wheat-maize) rotation. The residual effect of legumes with or without added fertilizer (N) was studied on subsequent maize crop grown as fodder. The study aimed to evaluate catch crop response as manure or fodder on the following maize. The results showed that SG was higher in crude protein (p<0.01) but lower in crude fiber (p<0.01) as compared to PP. The dry matter response of the treatments was almost similar. Maize fodder yield increased by 12.87% and 25.75% with PP and SG, respectively. Added soil N increased maize dry matter by 41.69%. Crude protein (CP) of maize fodder improved by N (p<0.001) but slightly decreased with PP and SG (p<0.05). Both the PP and SG incorporation as green manure increased maize fodder yield (p<0.05). On the other hand, considerable improvement in soil N was also noted when legumes were introduced as compared to fallow treatment. Contrary to that the green manure and/or harvested fodder did not show any significant changes. Results of the present study demonstrated that fallow legume manuring was beneficial in increasing yield of the subsequent crop in rotation and provided extra cover to the soil from erosion in addition to improving soil fertility status.

921-928 Download
24
AGRONOMIC TRIALS ON SUGARCANE CROP UNDER FAISALABAD CONDITIONS, PAKISTAN
LALL KHAN BABAR1, TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR2*, HAMMAD NAQI KHAN1 AND ARIF HAMID MAKHDUM1

AGRONOMIC TRIALS ON SUGARCANE CROP UNDER FAISALABAD CONDITIONS, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
In the present studies field experiments were conducted to study the production potential of September planted Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) under varying agro-management practices for the year 2007-2008. Two sugarcane clones viz., S2002-US-637 and CP 85-1491 show good growth potential were evaluated at five bio-fertilizer and chemical fertilizer levels in different combinations. Fifty percent bio-fertilizer + 50% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer increased the cane yield along with reduced environmental pollution. In field experiments, I4 & P4 treatment significantly affected agronomic characteristics such as cane height (cm), cane diameter (cm), cane yield (000 t ha-1), whereas number of tillers ha-1, number of mill-able canes ha-1 and sugar recovery % were non significantly affected over control. The sugarcane promising clone S2002-US-637 showed better performance over CP 85-1491. The interaction V2 P4 significantly affected all parameters except sugar recovery %. Furadon 20 kg ha-1 at sowing + Furadon 40 kg ha-1 in April / May + Furadon 40 Kg ha-1 in June/ July controlled the pests of sugarcane and increased the yield of promising sugarcane clones. The interaction I4V2 significantly affected all parameters except sugar recovery %. Trench planting saves 50% irrigation water but alternate skip irrigation further improves cane yield in addition to saving of same amount of water.

929-935 Download
25
DUAL PURPOSE WHEAT FOR FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD IN RESPONSE TO CUTTING, SEED RATE AND NITROGEN
SHAD K. KHALIL*, FARIDOON KHAN, A. REHMAN, FIDA MUHAMMAD, AMANULLAH, A.Z. KHAN, S. WAHAB, S. AKHTAR, M. ZUBAIR, I.H. KHALIL, M. KALAN SHAH, HUMAYUN KHAN

DUAL PURPOSE WHEAT FOR FORAGE AND GRAIN YIELD IN RESPONSE TO CUTTING, SEED RATE AND NITROGEN
ABSTRACT:
Availability of green fodder is one of the most serious problems for livestock particularly in winter season. The aim of this research was to evaluate dual purpose wheat utilized for forage and grain yield grown under different seed rate (S) and nitrogen (N) levels. Wheat variety Bakhtawar-92 was sown at Agricultural University, Peshawar for forage and grain production using 3 N rates (80

937-947 Download
26
CROP ROTATION IMPACT ON SOIL QUALITY
I. AZIZ1., M. ASHRAF., T. MAHMOOD2 AND K.R. ISLAM3

CROP ROTATION IMPACT ON SOIL QUALITY
ABSTRACT:
Management systems influence soil quality over time. A study was carried out on Vanmeter farm of the Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to evaluate the impact of crop rotations on soil quality from 2002 to 2007. The crop rotations comprised of continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn–soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW). Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15

949-960 Download
27
EFFECT OF SEED RATE ON GROWTH, YIELD COMPONENTS AND YIELD OF MASH BEAN GROWN UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF ARID UPLANDS OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABDUL KABIR KHAN ACHAKZAI1 AND SYED ALLAHDAD TARAN2

EFFECT OF SEED RATE ON GROWTH, YIELD COMPONENTS AND YIELD OF MASH BEAN GROWN UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF ARID UPLANDS OF BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of six different seed rates viz.

961-969 Download
28
ASSESSMENT OF VARIABILITY IN FRUIT QUALITY PARAMETERS OF PYRUS GERMPLASM COLLECTED FROM AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR (PAKISTAN)
MAQSOOD AHMED1, MUHAMMAD AKBAR ANJUM2, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3, MUHAMMAD SIDDIQUE AWAN1 AND M. ASHIQ RABBANI4*

ASSESSMENT OF VARIABILITY IN FRUIT QUALITY PARAMETERS OF PYRUS GERMPLASM COLLECTED FROM AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR (PAKISTAN)
ABSTRACT:
Five districts of the State of Azad Jammu & Kashmir (Pakistan) were explored for evaluation of 60 Pyrus accessions for their fruit quality. A considerable variability in organoleptic rating, chemical composition and post-harvest life was observed among the accessions. Fruits of all the accessions locally named as Frashishi and some ecotypes of Desi nashpati were distinguished as excellent for food quality, which was significantly better than those of other accessions. Five accessions locally called as Btangi remained at bottom in the evaluation criteria. Fruit samples of Frashishi accessions (MZ32, SD49, BG25 and SD40) had higher TSS and total sugar contents as compared to other accessions. The fruits of KT54 (Btangi) had the lowest TSS and total sugar contents. The maximum vitamin C content was recorded in RT11 (Glass) while the fruits of MZ33 and BG17 (both locally called as Btangi) had the minimum vitamin C content. The fruits of Kotharnul (BG21 and KT50) can be kept at room temperature for more than 21 days. However, most of the accessions locally referred as Frashishi possessed excellent and unique sensory properties but had comparatively less storability. The cluster dendrogram performed on the basis of studied parameters to assess pattern of diversity, differentiated accessions into four clusters and exhibited significant variability among the accessions. These results suggest that variability accounted for fruit quality was due to either genotypes or environmental conditions prevailing in the growing areas or interaction of both the factors.

971-981 Download
29
BIMONTHLY NUTRIENT APPLICATION PROGRAMME ON CALCAREOUS SOIL IMPROVES FLOWERING AND FRUIT SET IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)
RAHEEL ANWAR1*, SAEED AHMAD1, MUHAMMAD YASEEN2, WAQAR AHMAD1 AND MUHAMMAD NAFEES3

BIMONTHLY NUTRIENT APPLICATION PROGRAMME ON CALCAREOUS SOIL IMPROVES FLOWERING AND FRUIT SET IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)
ABSTRACT:
Fertilizer management particularly for mango trees is tedious on alkaline and calcareous soil. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Langra trees were supplied fertilizer through soil application under bimonthly nutrient application programme to ensure the continuous supply of nutrition to plants throughout the year. Fertilizer (N, P and K) was supplied five times a year at regular intervals while skipping one application randomly in each treatment. Amount of fertilizer supplied was equal in all treatments i.e., 910g N, 680g P2O5 and 680g K2O per tree. Complete dose of P and K and half dose of N were applied in February while rest of the half dose of N was applied in April as control. It was observed that trees supplied with nutrients in February, April, June, August and October, produced maximum number of flowers per panicle with highest percentage of perfect flowers (62.4%), maximum final fruit set (0.165%) and maximum nutrient use efficiency for nitrogen (25.57%), phosphorus (2%) and potassium (14.97%) over control. The results revealed the superiority of split application of nutrients in February, April, June, August and October over bulk application of fertilizer only in February and April (control).

983-990 Download
30
PHYSIOCHEMICAL TRAITS, PRODUCTIVITY AND NET RETURN OF WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHORUS AND ZINC REQUIREMENTS UNDER ARID CLIMATES
NAZIM HUSSAIN1*, MUHAMMAD BISMILLAH KHAN1, RIAZ AHMAD2, MUHAMMAD ARIF ALI1, NIAZ AHMED1 AND SHAFQAT SAEED3

PHYSIOCHEMICAL TRAITS, PRODUCTIVITY AND NET RETURN OF WHEAT AS AFFECTED BY PHOSPHORUS AND ZINC REQUIREMENTS UNDER ARID CLIMATES
ABSTRACT:
The present study was aimed to optimize phosphorous and zinc doses to maximize wheat productivity under arid climate. Varying levels of phosphorus (P1= 60, P2 = 90 and P3 = 120 kg ha-1) and zinc (Zn1 = 10, Zn2 = 15 and Zn3 = 20 (kg ha-1) were applied in a silty loam to which wheat was grown till maturity. From the results of the present study, it was found that application of P had a positive influence on growth and grain yield of wheat. However, maximum growth and yield of wheat was recorded at 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 application. In contrast, Zn application did not change in growth or yield of wheat. However, combined application of P and Zn caused an increase in growth of wheat particularly in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI). The highest grain-P content was recorded with application of 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 15 kg ha-1 Zn while highest straw-P was accumulated with comparatively lower rates of both (90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 15 kg ha-1 Zn). The highest grain and straw-Zn contents were recorded for 15 kg Zn ha-1 with 60 and 90 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Combined application of 120 kg P2O5 and 20 kg ha-1 Zn depicted the highest NFB and BCR during both cropping seasons.

991-1002 Download
31
PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS SNAPDRAGON (ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS L.) CULTIVARS AS CUT FLOWER IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ANUM SHAFIQUE1, MUHAMMAD MAQBOOL2*, MUHAMMAD AZHER NAWAZ1, AND WAQAR AHMED3

PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS SNAPDRAGON (ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS L.) CULTIVARS AS CUT FLOWER IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Sixteen Snapdragon cultivars were imported from United States of America (PanAmerica Seeds, Chicago. IL) and were grown at University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha for their outdoor field performance as cut flower production. Data were collected on various vegetative parameters (number of leaves per plant, plant height, number of secondary branches per plant, number of nodes per plant, stem fresh weight and stem dry weight) and flower spike (days for bud formation, days to bud opening, flower spike length, number of buds per spike). The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design (RCBD). The data regarding various growth parameters were analyzed by using standard statistical techniques. The studies revealed that Maryland White Yellow, Potomac Orange Dark, Maryland Golden Bronze, Maryland Pink True and Apollo Cinnamon cultivars of Snapdragon performed well for vegetative growth under existing environmental conditions and produced better quality flower spikes compared to other cultivars tested.

1003-1010 Download
32
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE STRESS ON POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN GRAINS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS
WAQAS KHAN KAYANI1*, SYED ABDUL MAJID2, TARIQ MAHMOOD3, SMS NAQVI4 AND ABDUL WAHEED5

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE STRESS ON POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN GRAINS OF SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS
ABSTRACT:
Color is a key quality trait of wheat-based products and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is implicated to play a significant role in their undesirable darkening. Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinines, which auto oxidize and polymerize with amino acid of cellular proteins resulting brown and black pigmentation propounding reduced nutritional values. In present study, the PPO activity in 50 different Pakistani wheat cultivars was investigated and grouped into three categories viz; low, medium and high PPO activity cultivars. PPO is a heat labile enzyme. To investigate effect of heat stress, nine cultivars from each category were chosen for treatment at 30, 40 and 50°C for 30, 60, and 120 minutes each. A substantial change was experienced in PPO activity as compared to room temperature. Two wheat cultivar Wafaq-2001 and AS-2002 showed a compromising attitude of minimum PPO activity at 30°C for a period of 30 and 60 minutes of incubation. In general, an incubation of 30°C or 60°C (low or high) for a period of 30 minutes can be recommended for suppressing PPO activity.

1011-1020 Download
33
RESPONSE OF TWO RICE VARIETIES VIZ., KHUSHBOO-95 AND MEHAK TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BORON
JAVAID AHMED SHAH*, MUHMMAD YOUSUF MEMON, MUHMMAD ASLAM, NIZAMUDDIN DEPAR, NIAZ ALI SIAL AND PARVEZ KHAN

RESPONSE OF TWO RICE VARIETIES VIZ., KHUSHBOO-95 AND MEHAK TO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BORON
ABSTRACT:
Boron is the deficient micronutrient in the soils of Pakistan. Boron (B) deficiency is wide spread in rice growing areas of Pakistan. Low and very high soil B depress grain yield of cereals. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of B on the yield and yield components of rice genotypes. Two rice varieties viz., Khushboo-95 and Mehak were grown in field with four B levels 0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg ha-1. The application of boron at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg ha-1 enhanced the paddy yield of Khushboo-95 by 9

1021-1031 Download
34
EFFECT OF USING WASTE WATER FOR TOMATO
MOHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN1, MOHAMMAD TARIQ JAN2, FARHATULLAH3, NAQIB ULLAH KAH3, MOHAMMAD ARIF2, SAJIDA PERVEEN1, SHAH ALAM4 AND ABBAS ULLAH JAN5

EFFECT OF USING WASTE WATER FOR TOMATO
ABSTRACT:
Field experiment near Palosi drain was conducted to study the effect of tube well (TW) and waste water (WW) with or without basal dose of NP and K on the yield and heavy metal uptake of tomato during 2008. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam, slightly alkaline, moderately calcareous with phytotoxically high concentration of Cu, Fe and Mn while Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were less than the levels considered toxic to the plants. The tomato biomass was significantly (p<0.05) affected by different treatments. Taller plants and higher biomass was produced in plots receiving WW with or without NP and K and TW water receiving basal dose of NP and K while lower biomass and shorter plants were produced in plots receiving only TW water indicating the nutritive value of WW application. The results of metal concentration in leaves and fruit showed that with exception of Cd, there were significant variation (p<0.05) in the plant uptake of metals when irrigated with different supply of irrigation water. The overall results showed that leaves accumulated higher concentration (with exception of Cu) of heavy metals studied compared to fruit. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Mn Pb and Zn in leaves was above the permissible limits when irrigated with waste water while waste water supplemented with fertilizers showed reduction in heavy metals uptake. The concentration of Fe and Pb was above the permissible limits in fruits indicating toxicity. It was also noted that plants receiving sole application of WW accumulated more heavy metals compared to WW plus half dose of NP and K while the TW irrigated plots accumulated less heavy metals indicating that their was no build up of heavy metals in the river bed soils because of its coarse texture. It can be concluded that tomato can be irrigated with effluents containing moderate supply of heavy metals on coarse textured soil.

1033-1044 Download
35
EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME PRODUCTION BY INDIGENOUS THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA: PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF α-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS SP. WA21
WAJEEHA ASAD, MARIA ASIF AND SHEIKH AJAZ RASOOL*

EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME PRODUCTION BY INDIGENOUS THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA: PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF α-AMYLASE BY BACILLUS SP. WA21
ABSTRACT:
Thermostability is a characteristic of most of the enzymes available for bulk industrial usage. Thermophilic microorganisms are of special interest as a source of novel thermostable enzymes. A total of 50 bacterial strains, isolated from local hot springs and ash samples were screened for the extracellular enzyme production including amylase, lipase, esterase, cellulase and β-galactosidase. As a follow up, studies on α-amylase were carried out with a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus sp. WA21 (from hot spring) on the basis of maximum zone of starch hydrolysis in agar plate medium. Bacillus WA21 showed growth over a wide range of temperature (35-55ºC) and pH (3-11) with optimum being 45ºC and pH 6. Maximum enzyme production was observed after 144 hours. The enzyme was found optimally active at 55ºC and pH 6. Temperature stability profile revealed that enzyme α-amylase retained more than half of its activity at 85ºC and between pH 5-9. Thus, Bacillus WA21 may be regarded as a promising source of α-amylase for biotechnological and industrial applications.

1045-1052 Download
36
ALGINATE PRODUCTION BY A MUTANT STRAIN OF AZOTOBACTER VINELANDII USING SHAKE FLASK FERMENTATION
ZAHID ALI BUTT, IKRAM-UL-HAQ AND MUHAMMAD ABDUL QADEER

ALGINATE PRODUCTION BY A MUTANT STRAIN OF AZOTOBACTER VINELANDII USING SHAKE FLASK FERMENTATION
ABSTRACT:
The present study describes the improvement of parent strain of Azotobacter vinelandii NRRL-14641 for enhanced alginate production using shake flask fermentation. Results indicated that a mutant A. vinelandii EMS-45 obtained after EMS treatment gave 1.55 fold better alginate productions than that of the parent strain. Different cultural conditions were employed to optimize the polymer production in the fermentation broth. It was noted that maximum alginate production (6.17 g/l) was obtained with nitrogen rich phosphate limited medium (NRP) after 110 h of incubation period. The incubation temperature 30°C, pH 7.0, agitation intensity 200 rpm, carbon and nitrogen source were also optimized and sucrose and peptone were found as the best to support 1.55 fold higher alginate than that in un-optimized medium.

1053-1067 Download
37
TISSUE CULTURE OF BLACK PEPPER (PIPER NIGRUM L.) IN PAKISTAN
ALTAF HUSSAIN1*, SHAMMA NAZ2, HUMMERA NAZIR2 AND ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI3

TISSUE CULTURE OF BLACK PEPPER (PIPER NIGRUM L.) IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) the “King of Spices” is a universal table condiment. It is extensively used in Pakistani cuisines and herbal medicines and imported in bulk from neighboring countries. The black pepper vine is generally cultivated by seed because other vegetative propagation methods are slow and time consuming. Therefore the tissue culture technique is considered more efficient and reliable method for rapid and mass propagation of this economically important plant. The present study was initiated to develop protocol for micro-propagation of black pepper vine. The stem, leaf and shoot tip explants from mature vine were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA, IBA). Best callus was produced on MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BA by shoot tip explant. Shoot regeneration was excellent on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. The plantlets formed were rooted best on 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plants were transplanted in soil medium and acclimatized in growth room. The plants raised were test planted under the local conditions of Hattar.

1069-1078 Download
38
MICROCOSM STUDIES FOR THE BIODEGRADATION OF CARBARYL IN SOIL
TATHEER ALAM NAQVI1*, NISAR AHMED KANHAR2, ABDUL HUSSAIN SHAR2, MASROOR HUSSAIN3 AND SAFIA AHMED3

MICROCOSM STUDIES FOR THE BIODEGRADATION OF CARBARYL IN SOIL
ABSTRACT:
A field-scale experiment with a complete randomized block design was performed to study the degradation of carbaryl in soil. Soil was treated with different types of treatments. Degradation was observed at two levels of soil after 7

1079-1084 Download
39
CHARACTERIZATION OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) CULTIVARS GROWN IN TURKEY BY SDS-PAGE OF SEED PROTEINS
İSMET BERBER1* AND FİKRET YAŞAR2

CHARACTERIZATION OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) CULTIVARS GROWN IN TURKEY BY SDS-PAGE OF SEED PROTEINS
ABSTRACT:
In the present research, a total 28 bean cultivars grown in Turkey were characterized by the numerical analysis of seed protein profiles obtained by using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. The numerical analysis of seed protein profiles generated two major clusters at similarity levels of 82.52% or above. The first cluster included 5 reference bean cultivars at the intra-cluster similarity values of 91.25% or above. The second cluster comprised the all remaining genotypes at similarity values between 84.46% and 100%. Our results also indicated that Gina standard cultivar together with all eastern genotypes belonged to subcluster IIc, having the highest intra-cluster similarities between 95.54% and 100%. In this sense, it is suggested that probably there may be a very close genetic relationship between eastern genotypes and Gina cultivar. In conclusion, this study indicated that the numerical analysis of seed protein profiles offer no final answer to the identity of bean genotypes, however, the method can provide of extra banding pattern for the discrimination of bean genotypes cultivated in Turkey.

1085-1090 Download
40
COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NaCl AND SEA SALT ON SEED GERMINATION OF ARTHROCNEMUM INDICUM
SAIRA SAEED, BILQUEES GUL AND M. AJMAL KHAN*

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF NaCl AND SEA SALT ON SEED GERMINATION OF ARTHROCNEMUM INDICUM
ABSTRACT:
Arthrocnemum indicum is a stem succulent perennial halophyte from the family Chenopodiaceae. Experiments on seed germination were carried out using NaCl and sea salt (0

1091-1103 Download
41
INTER AND INTRA-SPECIFIC VARIATION IN SDS-PAGE OF SEED PROTEINS OF THREE POA L. (POACEAE) SPECIES
AHMET TAMKOC1 AND EMINE ARSLAN2*

INTER AND INTRA-SPECIFIC VARIATION IN SDS-PAGE OF SEED PROTEINS OF THREE POA L. (POACEAE) SPECIES
ABSTRACT:
Total seed storage proteins were analyzed in genotypes belonging to three Poa species collected from Turkey. In this study, SDS-PAGE method was preferred to inter and intra-specifically determine the genetic relationships of Poa species in order to facilitate genotype selection in breeding programs. Individual electrophoregrams of the species obtained with SDS-PAGE can be used as password data for their genetic relationships. Polypeptide patterns ranged from 10 kDa to 128 kDa were calculated according to Nei homology using Bio1D++ computer program. Genetic and morphological differences between the Poa species are discussed. The dendrogram obtained with UPGMA clustering method indicated a low intra-specific genetic diversity while P. pratensis and P. trivialis genotypes stated closer relation as compared to P. angustifolia genotypes. It was concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in the studies of genetic diversity and genetic relationships of Poa species. Additionally, this method can be useful to determine the correct starting material for plant breeding.

1105-1110 Download
42
ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID AND PROLINE IN SALINITY TOLERANCE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
MOHAMMAD SHAFI1, JEHAN BAKHT*2 MOHAMMAD JAVED KHAN3, MOHAMMAD AMAN KHAN4 AND RAZIUDDIN5

ROLE OF ABSCISIC ACID AND PROLINE IN SALINITY TOLERANCE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
ABSTRACT:
Wheat genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance under 3 diverse environments of Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Swabi KPK Pakistan) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda KPK Pakistan). Eleven genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR-25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) were tested for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile (i.e. Yar Hussain, EC. 3-3.5 dS m-1; Baboo Dehari, EC. 4-4.5 dS m-1 and Khitab Koroona, EC. 5-5.30 dSm-1). Different locations and wheat genotypes had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on endogenous shoot proline, shoot ABA (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and straw yield. Maximum endogenous shoot proline and ABA levels (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded in genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. The results further indicated that minimum endogenous shoot proline and ABA concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded at Yar Hussain. Maximum endogenous shoot proline and ABA concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were observed at Khitab Koroona.

1111-1118 Download
43
TOLERANCE AND TOXICITY LEVELS OF BORON IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) CULTIVARS AT EARLY GROWTH STAGES
AMMARAH HASNAIN, SEEMA MAHMOOD, SAEED AKHTAR2, SAEED A. MALIK* AND NAHIDAH BASHIR

TOLERANCE AND TOXICITY LEVELS OF BORON IN MUNG BEAN (VIGNA RADIATA (L.) WILCZEK) CULTIVARS AT EARLY GROWTH STAGES
ABSTRACT:
Boron (B) toxicity has been recognized as a serious problem in arid and semi arid regions of the world. This study was aimed to determine critical levels of B by studying phenotypic variation for B-tolerance/ toxicity at the germination and seedling stage in three mung bean (Vigna radiata) cultivars; M-6, M-8 & 96009. Boron levels ranging from 0-20 ppm were applied using Boric acid. Germination, growth and photosynthetic attributes were significantly (p<0.001) influenced by varying B levels. However, the cultivars were significantly invariable for germination, seedling height and leaf number. B levels (5-10 ppm) appeared to be nutritionally critical whereas

1119-1125 Download
44
INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED LEVEL OF CO2 ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR. INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM
NEELOFER HAMID, AFSHAN REHMAN AND FAIZA JAWAID

INFLUENCE OF ELEVATED LEVEL OF CO2 ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR. INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM JAPONICUM
ABSTRACT:
Effect of elevated CO2 with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain (KUCC-118) on some biochemical parameters of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr was studied. The sterilized seeds of Glycine max were coated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The seedling of soybean was fumigated with 2% (20000ppm) and 3% (30000ppm) CO2 for 10 and 20 mins., duration. Seedlings were exposed twice a day in a week to elevated CO2. The 3% (3000ppm) CO2 fumigated plants showed weekly reduction in carbohydrate, total protein, total DNA and total RNA as compared to the exposure of 2% (2000ppm) concentration of CO2. Control plants which were grown in ambient level (330ppm) of CO2 with inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum showed significant increase in biochemical parameters.

1127-1131 Download
45
DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FRUITS OF NAWABSHAH DISTRICT, SINDH*, PAKISTAN
TAHIR ANWAR1, IMTIAZ AHMAD2* AND SEEMA TAHIR3

DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FRUITS OF NAWABSHAH DISTRICT, SINDH*, PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Eight fruit samples of apple, guava, orange, grapes, pear, persimmon, banana and pear purchased from the local markets of Nawabshah district, Sindh and residues of pesticide of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid and organochlorine (OC) (i.e., dichlorvos, fenvalerate, dimethoate, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin, mevinphos, chlorpyriphos, profenofos and dicofol ) were monitored in fruit samples by Gas Chromatography (GC). All the fruit samples were found contaminated except banana and among these only apple samples were found exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL) of Codex Alimentarius Commission.

1133-1139 Download
46
GENE ACTION IN SOME YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF BREAD WHEAT UNDER TWO WATER REGIMES
GHULAM RABBANI1*, ABID MAHMOOD1, GHULAM SHABBIR2 KAUSAR NAWAZ SHAH3 AND NAEEM-UD-DIN1

GENE ACTION IN SOME YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF BREAD WHEAT UNDER TWO WATER REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Breeders are always interested in the task of developing new varieties for changing environments. Thus, they have to deal with new crosses to select desired combinations. Grain yield is a complex character that is influenced by the fluctuating behavior of the environment. To overcome this situation, it is necessary to breed wheat varieties which perform better than existing ones under diverse conditions. A complete diallel cross was prepared from eight parental wheat accessions with a range of tolerance to drought. F1 hybrids and parents were grown at Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal. At maturity peduncle length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, dry weight per plant at maturity and harvest index were recorded.

1141-1156 Download
47
IDENTIFICATION OF TWO SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS (SCMV) VARIANTS FROM NATURALLY INFECTED SUGARCANE CROP IN PAKISTAN
M. SALEEM HAIDER1*#, SHAHID AFGHAN2, HAROON RIAZ1, M. TAHIR1, M. ARSHAD JAVED1, NAEEM RASHID1 AND JAVED IQBAL1

IDENTIFICATION OF TWO SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS (SCMV) VARIANTS FROM NATURALLY INFECTED SUGARCANE CROP IN PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Leaf samples of sugarcane were collected from symptomatic and non-symptomatic plants. Total RNA was extracted and purified from sugarcane leaves samples. Presence of mosaic virus was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification using primers designed to the conserved regions of the coat protein genes of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). An amplification product of expected size (approx. 900 bp) was achieved from symptomatic samples but no amplification was detected from non-symptomatic plant samples. RT-PCR amplified DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced in both directions. DNA sequence from two virus isolates from sugarcane cultivars CSSG676 and CSSG668 showed highest level of sequence identity (97% and 96%, respectively) to SCMV (Bundaberg isolate), indicating that the virus isolates infecting sugarcane varieties are variants of SCMV in Pakistan.

1157-1162 Download
48
AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TOTAL RNA ISOLATION FROM RECALCITRANT LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) BUDS
HUWEI SONG1,2, YUEXUE LIU1,3,GUIBING HU1, YONGHUA QIN1 AND SHUNQUAN LIN1*

AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TOTAL RNA ISOLATION FROM RECALCITRANT LOQUAT (ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA LINDL.) BUDS
ABSTRACT:
Loquat buds during floral differentiation which contain large amounts of polysaccharides, proteins and secondary metabolites were not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. Here a concise and efficient RNA isolation protocol based on cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lithium chloride (LiCl) named improved CTAB-LiCl protocol was developed. The RNA isolated by this improved protocol was not only of high purity and integrity (A260/280 ratio was range from 1.85 to 2.0 and A260/230 ratio was over 2.0), but also high yield as 400-600 μg of total RNA per gramme fresh tissue, which was 6 to 10 folds more than that by the improved CTAB I or II protocols assessed. These results depended on the following crucial improved steps: the addition of 2 ml (3M) potassium acetate to further deposit polysaccharides, three times efficient separation of total RNA from polysaccharide and DNA residues with 2 M lithium chloride (LiCl) which was never applied in the traditional CTAB-based protocols, the reduction of phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol extraction times (only once) to avoid the great loss of total RNA. Further, the quality of total RNA isolated was verified to be competent for the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis with EJTFL1-1 and EJTFL1-2 genes related to floral bud differentiation. Moreover, this improved protocol is cost-saving and reduces the risk of chemical carcinogen to operator as the abandon of diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC).

1163-1171 Download
49
GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RHODODENDRON MUTANTS USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD)
CIMEN ATAK1, OZGE CELIK1* AND LEYLA ACIK2

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RHODODENDRON MUTANTS USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD)
ABSTRACT:
The aim of our study was to consider the efficiency of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to show the differences between Rhododendron mutants and control plants. The mutant plantlets were selected due to their better In vitro shoot and root regeneration relative to control in both varieties. Six mutant plantlets from Alfred and seven mutant plantlets from Paars variety were selected from M1V2 generations. These mutants were selected from plantlets which were irradiated with doses 5 and 10 Gy. They were grown up In vitro conditions. The dendrogram shows one big cluster and the others to be distinguished. Genetic variability induced with gamma ray and RAPD methods were used to detect mutations at the Rhododendron shoot culture. Our results show that Rhododendron mutants were district from controls.

1173-1182 Download
50
AGRONOMIC AND MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF INDUCED MUTANT RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) LINES IN EGYPT
TARIQ SHEHZAD12*#, ABD ALLAH3* ABD EL NABY ABD ALLAH3, MEGAHED HELMY AMMAR3 AND AMR FAROUK ABDELKHALIK3

AGRONOMIC AND MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF INDUCED MUTANT RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) LINES IN EGYPT
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted at the farm of the Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2000-2007 rice sowing seasons. Five rice varieties viz., Giza 171, Giza 175, Giza 176, Giza 181 and GZ 1368 were the most widely grown Japonica and Indica types in Egypt during the last period, possesses at that time many positive agronomic characteristics including wide adaptability, high yield potential, tolerance to stresses and good eating quality. But with the passage of time it has lost its vigor. In Rice Research Program, Egypt, dry seeds of the above mentioned varieties were treated with different doses of gamma rays (100

1183-1194 Download
51
GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS FOR AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN RAPESEED (BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L.)
MUHAMMAD YOUSUF1*, SAIF ULLAH AJMAL2, MUHAMMAD MUNIR2 AND ABDUL GHAFOOR3

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS FOR AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN RAPESEED (BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L.)
ABSTRACT:
One hundred fourteen accessions of rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) were evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan using cluster and principal component analyses during 2005 and 2006. Cluster analysis based on fifteen agro-morphological and six seed quality traits, divided 114 accessions into six and five clusters during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first seven and five PCs with eigenvalues > 1 contributed 74.09% and 66.08% of the variability amongst accessions during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Nine important characters contributed positively to first two PCs during both the years 2005 and 2006.

1195-1203 Download
52
ADDITIVE MAIN EFFECT AND MULTIPLICATIVE ANAYLYSIS OF SYNTHETIC-DERIVED BREAD WHEAT UNDER VARYING MOISTURE REGIMES
FIDA MOHAMMAD1, O.S. ABDALLA2, S. RAJARAM2, ALA’A YALJAROUKA2, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, AMIR ZAMAN KHAN1, SHAD KHAN KHALIL1, IFTIKHAR HUSSAIN KHALIL1, IJAZ AHMAD1 AND SULTAN AKBAR JADOON1

ADDITIVE MAIN EFFECT AND MULTIPLICATIVE ANAYLYSIS OF SYNTHETIC-DERIVED BREAD WHEAT UNDER VARYING MOISTURE REGIMES
ABSTRACT:
Synthetic-derived bread wheat populations are used as sources of resistance genes for biotic and abiotic stresses. This study used direct field evaluation of synthetic-derived wheat lines to assess grain yield and its associated traits under varying moisture regimes during 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Tel Hadya and Breda, the main research stations of the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria. Forty synthetic-derived wheat lines and eight check cultivars were tested in 5 experiments using alpha-lattice design with three replicates at Tel Hadya and Breda, Syria. Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions analysis (AMMI) indicated that the yield of genotypes was under high genotype by environmental interaction. The first two principal component axes (PCA1 and PCA2) were significant (p≤0.01) and in total contributed 87.6% of the total genotype by environment interaction. We identified some lines bearing T. tauschii germplasm with yields equal and superior in some of the yield components to that of the high-yielding cultivars used as checks, thus providing useful material to wheat breeders.

1205-1210 Download
53
RADIO SENSITIVITY OF RICE GENOTYPES TO GAMMA RADIATIONS BASED ON SEEDLING TRAITS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES
AQSA TABASUM*, AKBAR ALI CHEEMA, AMJAD HAMEED, MUHAMMAD RASHID AND MUHAMMAD ASHRAF

RADIO SENSITIVITY OF RICE GENOTYPES TO GAMMA RADIATIONS BASED ON SEEDLING TRAITS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES
ABSTRACT:
Three Basmati rice genotypes viz., 00515, 99417 and Super Basmati were examined for varietal differences in radio sensitivity to gamma radiations. Dry healthy seeds were exposed to variable doses of gamma radiations i.e.

1211-1222 Download
54
INVESTIGATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BLACK GRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER]
SAIMA SHAFIQUE1, MUHAMMAD RASHID KHAN1, MOHAMMAD NISAR2 AND SHAFIQURE-UR- REHMAN3*

INVESTIGATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BLACK GRAM [VIGNA MUNGO (L.) HEPPER]
ABSTRACT:
In the present investigation 34 Pakistani Black gram cultivars were evaluated through morphological traits, SDS-PAGE analysis and random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPD) which revealed considerable amount of genetic diversity in this species. Among the morphological traits, dry pod weight (71.79%), number of branches per plant (51.16%) and biological yield (50.12%) showed highest level of coefficient of variation. Percent frequency distribution also showed highest level of genetic diversity. Positive significant correlation was observed between numbers of pods per plant and dry pod length (p=0.01); grain yield and number of seeds per plant (p=0.02), and 100 seeds weight and biological yield (p=0.04). A total of 20 cultivars were identified and characterized on the basis of maximum and minimum value for 10 quantitative traits. The combinations of 20 cultivars are having practical application for breeding program as well as for direct selection of super cultivar. Among the biochemical and molecular makers, RAPD marker showed high level genetic similarity difference (0.00–4.00) as compared to SDS-PAGE (0.00–2.45). RAPD analysis is considered the best option for determining Black gram genetic diversity pattern and Gene Bank management.

1223-1232 Download
55
EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT PAKISTANI WHEAT LAND RACES
TARIQ MAHMOOD*, AYESHA SIDDIQUA, AWAIS RASHEED AND NAZIA NAZAR

EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT PAKISTANI WHEAT LAND RACES
ABSTRACT:
Wheat is one of the main sources of nutrition worldwide. Genetic improvement of the seed makes wheat a source of high quality flour for human consumption and for other industrial uses. With the help of molecular markers, the available germplasm of wheat can be assessed for future breeding programs. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity among 15 Pakistani wheat land races based on Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 284 DNA fragments were amplified, ranging in size from 200bp to 1100bp by using six primers. The number of DNA fragments for each primer varied from 2 (OPC-6) to 9 (OPC-8) with an average of 6 fragments per primer. Out of 284 amplified products

1233-1239 Download
56
COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN BRASSICA JUNCEA
NAUSHAD ALI TURI1, RAZIUDDIN1, FARHATULLAH1, NAQIB ULLAH KHAN1, GHULAM HASSAN1, JEHAN BAKHT2, SAJID KHAN1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI3

COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD RELATED TRAITS IN BRASSICA JUNCEA
ABSTRACT:
A diallel experiment was conducted to determine better general and specific combiners in 8x8 Brassica juncea L., genotypes for seed yield and its associated traits. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p≤0.01) differences among all the genotypes for pod length

1241-1248 Download
57
INVESTIGATION AND COMPARISON OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF THE SOYBEAN POPULATIONS USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS
M. FAISAL ANWAR MALIK1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, AFSARI S. QURESHI1 AND MUHAMMAD RASHID KHAN1

INVESTIGATION AND COMPARISON OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF THE SOYBEAN POPULATIONS USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS
ABSTRACT:
A study was performed on 92 genotypes of soybean including 4 checks during the Kharif season (July-Oct) of 2003. High values of the Shannon index for flower colour (0.54), pod colour (1.12), plant type (0.88), seed luster (0.84), seed size (1.08) and seed colour (0.91) revealed greater variability in these qualitative traits. High CVs were recorded in leaf area (44.81%), pods plant-1 (29.47%), branches plant-1 (31.72%)

1249-1255 Download
58
IDENTIFICATION OF SUSCEPTIBLE AND TOLERANT GRAM (CICER ARIETINUM L.) GENOTYPES AGAINST GRAM POD BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA) (HUBNER)
MUHAMMAD SARWAR, NAZIR AHMAD AND MUHAMMAD TOUFIQ

IDENTIFICATION OF SUSCEPTIBLE AND TOLERANT GRAM (CICER ARIETINUM L.) GENOTYPES AGAINST GRAM POD BORER (HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA) (HUBNER)
ABSTRACT:
The use of crop varieties resistant or tolerant to insect pests stress is an imperative approach in non-chemical crop protection. In the presented studies

1265-1270 Download
59
EFFECT OF FOLIAR-APPLIED BORON AND MANGANESE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN SUNFLOWER UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
NUSRAT JABEEN AND RAFIQ AHMAD

EFFECT OF FOLIAR-APPLIED BORON AND MANGANESE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN SUNFLOWER UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS
ABSTRACT:
Experiments were conducted to assess whether exogenous application of some essential micronutrients (B and Mn) through foliar spray could ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress on growth and biochemical activities of sunflower plants. Sunflower (NuSun 636 cv) were grown under normal and different saline conditions, created through 0.4% (ECiw 6.1 dS/m) and 0.8% (ECiw 10.8dS/m) of sea salt irrigation. Salinity was found to cause a significant reduction at all the vegetative and reproductive growth parameters. Salt stress showed inhibition in biochemical activities such as amount of protein, nucleoprotein and Hill reaction in sunflower leaves. Foliar applications of B through H3BO3 and Mn through MnCl2 and their mixture were found to improve all the studied growth parameters and biochemical activities of sunflower plant irrespective to their growth under non-saline or saline conditions. The growth and yield component as a result of the mixture of foliar spray was higher than spray of single element. Their spray appeared to ameliorate the toxic effects of excessive sodium present in growing medium which is reflected by producing economically feasible yield even beyond the threshold value of salinity (ECe 5.5ds/m).

1271-1282 Download
60
SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND SHOOT REGENERATION INDUCED IN CUCUMBER LEAVES
MUHAMMAD USMAN*, ZAHOOR HUSSAIN AND B. FATIMA

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND SHOOT REGENERATION INDUCED IN CUCUMBER LEAVES
ABSTRACT:
Commercial cucumber cultivars were explored for embryogenesis and plant regeneration induced in somatic tissues on plant growth regulators (PGRs). Maximum callus induction 94.16% and 76% was observed in leaf disc explants on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2 mgL-1), NAA and BAP (1.5 mgL-1, each), respectively. Seed cotyledon explants induced maximum calli (77%) on 4.0 + 0.75 mgL-1 (BAP + NAA, respectively). Calli induced in leaf disc on the highest level of 2,4-D (5 mgL-1) yielded the highest embryo formation (23%) whereas calli induced on BAP and BAP + NAA (5 + 1 mgL-1) regenerated into 14% and 12%, shoots respectively. These shoots were excised and rooted on MSO medium. The plantlets were transplanted in pots and transferred to field after acclimatization. The developed plant material will be morphologically and genetically characterized for homozygosity.

1283-1293 Download
61
HERITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED YIELD AND YIELD RELATED COMPONENTS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BASED ON GENETIC DIFFERENCE
SYEDA NASREEN1, ZARRIN FATIMA2*, MEHWISH ISHAQUE3, AKBAR SHAH MOHMAND-1, MUKHTAR KHAN-1, RASHID KHAN4 AND M FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY2

HERITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED YIELD AND YIELD RELATED COMPONENTS IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) BASED ON GENETIC DIFFERENCE
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to develop sunflower hybrids with maximum yield potential. The genetically diverse sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) inbred lines comprising 6 cytoplasmic male steriles (CMS) and 6 fertility restorers (Rf were crossed in line x tester mating design and 36F1 hybrids were obtained. The hybrids were evaluated during spring of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 years for seed yield and yield components. The yield components included in the study were head diameter

1295-1306 Download
62
ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL IN PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS, STEVIA REBAUDIANA AND GINKGO BILOBA
HINA FAZAL1, 3*, NISAR AHMAD2, IKRAM ULLAH2, HUMAIRA INAYAT3, LAJBER KHAN3 AND BILAL HAIDER ABBASI2

ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL IN PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS, STEVIA REBAUDIANA AND GINKGO BILOBA
ABSTRACT:
Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive molecules, making them rich source of different types of medicines. In the present study the, In vitro antibacterial activity of 3 medicinal plants viz., Parthenium hysterophorus, Stevia rebaudiana and Ginkgo biloba were evaluated by using different solvent extracts. The extracts were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus spp., and Staphylococcus aureus by using agar well diffusion method. Azithromycin and cepaxim were used as standard antibiotics. Some of the solvent extracts of the plant showed the highest activity against some bacteria than standard antibiotics used. The findings provide support for the use of these plants in traditional medicine.

1307-1313 Download
63
ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES OF FOUR LAMIACEAE ESSENTIAL OILS
ABDULLAH IJAZ HUSSAIN1,2, FAROOQ ANWAR1*, TAHIRA IQBAL1 AND IJAZ AHMAD BHATTI1

ANTIOXIDANT ATTRIBUTES OF FOUR LAMIACEAE ESSENTIAL OILS
ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oils of four Lamiaceae plants i.e. Pogostemon cablin, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, and Salvia officinalis native to Pakistan. The essential oil contents from the aerial parts of P. cablin, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and S. officinalis were found to be 1.98, 0.58, 0.25 and 0.46%, respectively. The principal chemical constituent established in P. cablin L. angustifolia, M. officinalis, and S. officinalis essential oils, were patchouli alcohol, linalool, citronellal, and 1,8-cineol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH●), percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching β-carotene in linoleic acid system. The essential oils possessed appreciable antioxidant and radical scavenging activities revealing potential for therapeutic applications.

1315-1321 Download
64
BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCOLIPIDS PRODUCED BY RHODOCOCCUS ERYTHROPOLIS
A. ABDEL-MEGEED1,2, A.N. AL-RAHMA1, A.A. MOSTAFA1 AND K. HUSNU CAN BASER3

BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCOLIPIDS PRODUCED BY RHODOCOCCUS ERYTHROPOLIS
ABSTRACT:
Bacteria exhibiting antimicrobial activity were isolated from contaminated sites in Riyadh area, Saudi Arabia. It was charaterized and identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis. The biosurfactants produced by Rhodococcus erythropolis were partially purified and characterized by HPLC and GC-MS. The influence of antimicrobial activities were obtained by using agar diffusion method against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria involved (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerouginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Salmonella spp. Corynebacterium spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus); and two pathogenic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. These surface active agents exhibited high inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus among the tested ones. The results clearly indicated that the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the used glycolipids vary with the species of the organisms used. The microbes examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), were totally deformed and exhibited severe destruction. Abnormal cell division was observed at high frequencies among cells that tried to divide in the presence of the Rhodococcus erythropolis glycolipids . Many cells were enlarged, elongated, empty hosts, or fragmented, consistent with the extremely low viability. Thus, the study ascertains the value of the use of these glycolipids which could be of considerable interest to the development of new anti-microbial materials for medical applications as water purification plants, dental surgery equipments and pharmaceutical purposes. The potential activity of these microorganisms to produce useful antimicrobial compounds is great and must be better explored.

1323-1334 Download
65
PURIFICATION AND BIOASSAYS OF BIOACTIVE FRACTION FROM CURCUMA LONGA AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV.ORYZAE CAUSING BLB DISEASE IN RICE
RUKHSANA JABEEN*1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2, IFTIKHAR AHMAD3 AND TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR4

PURIFICATION AND BIOASSAYS OF BIOACTIVE FRACTION FROM CURCUMA LONGA AGAINST XANTHOMONAS ORYZAE PV.ORYZAE CAUSING BLB DISEASE IN RICE
ABSTRACT:
In the present study hot water diffusates of different plant species (100gm /100ml) were screened for testing antibacterial activity using hole plate diffusion method against most aggressive isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae Pv.oryzae (Xoo 105). Eight plant species Citrus limon,Linum usitatissimum, Mangifera indica Phyllanthus emblica, Prunus domestica,Tamarindus indica,Terminalia arjuna and Curcuma longa exhibited maximum inhibitory action against test bacterium, among them Curcuma longa member of Zingiberaceae family showed maximum antibacterial activity , forming inhibition zone of 28.45mm in diameter, showing activity index 0.98 compared with streptomycin drug. Extract of Curcuma longa isolated from rhizome were supposed to be Curcumin.

1335-1342 Download
66
ECOLOGICAL SCREENING OF LIPOLYTIC CULTURES AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE PRODUCTION FROM FUNGAL HYPERPRODUCER
TEHREEMA IFTIKHAR1*, MUBASHIR NIAZ1, MAMONA ANWER1, SYED QAISER ABBAS, MUHAMMAD SALEEM2 AND RUKHSANA JABEEN3

ECOLOGICAL SCREENING OF LIPOLYTIC CULTURES AND PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE PRODUCTION FROM FUNGAL HYPERPRODUCER
ABSTRACT:
Present investigation describes the biosynthesis of extracellular lipases by various local fungal strains isolated from various lipid rich habitats of Faisalabad. The isolated cultures of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor mucedo, Alternaria alternata, Trichophyton sp., Fusarium semitectum, E (un-identified), Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus, G (un-identified), F (Mucor sp.) and H (Synnematous) were identified and screened for the extracelluler lipases production. Different environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum size, amount of substrate and incubation time were optimized for the selected hyper producer. It was found that maximum production of lipases by Trichophyton sp., was obtained after 48 h of batch fermentation. Similarly, the diluent pH of 7.0 and incubation temperature of 30°C were found optimum for enzyme production by the microorganism. The maximum production of lipases during the course of present studies was 65.20 ± 1.13a U/g.

1343-1349 Download
67
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERUCA SATIVA SEED
MUHAMMAD GULFRAZ1, ALIA SADIQ1, HIRA TARIQ1, MUHAMMAD IMRAN1, RAHMATULLAH QURESHI2* AND ASYIA ZEENAT1

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ERUCA SATIVA SEED
ABSTRACT:
Antibacterial activity of various solvent extracts of Eruca sativa seed as well as seed oil was investigated against Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed from seed oil followed by methanolic seed extracts from all bacterial strains compared with broad spectrum antibiotics gentamicine. MIC values of seed oil were within the ranges of 52-72 µg/ml as compared to 56-70 µg/ml standard antibiotic (Gentamicine). Proximate and Phytochemical analysis of seed of E. sativa showed presence of all essential phyto constituents required for promising traditional medicine. Analysis of seed oil by gas chromatography revealed that there was high concentration of Erucic acid (51.2%) followed by oleic acid (15.1%) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (12.5%). In addition, minor quantities of other essential and non essential fatty acids were also present. Therefore the present study supports effectiveness of E. sativa seeds for its use in traditional medicine used in various human disorders.

1351-1359 Download
68
OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) DEPOLYMERASE FROM NEWLY ISOLATED ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS FROM SOIL
ADIL FAROOQ LODHI, FARIHA HASAN, ZIAULLAH SHAH, ABDUL HAMEED, SHAH FAISAL AND AAMER ALI SHAH*

OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) DEPOLYMERASE FROM NEWLY ISOLATED ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS FROM SOIL
ABSTRACT:
The present research work was aimed for the isolation and identification of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) degrading Aspergillus fumigatus and optimization of culture conditions for the maximum production of PHB depolymerase. This strain was isolated from the soil samples, collected from waste disposal sites, Islamabad, Pakistan, through enrichment and plate assay techniques, then culture conditions were optimized using enzyme assay, protein estimation and calculation of specific activity of the enzyme. The optimization experiments were done to determine the optimal combination of parameters, such as temperature, pH, substrate concentration, extra carbon sources and different inoculum sizes for maximum PHB depolymerase production by Aspergillus fumigatus. All the experiments were performed for 120hrs and samples were taken after every 24 hours and enzyme activities and protein concentrations were monitored. It was observed that maximum PHB depolymerase was produced at 45°C, pH 7 and 0.2% substrate concentration with specific activity 7.756U/mg, 6.120U/mg and 6.506U/mg respectively, after 24 hours of incubation. Lactose was found to be the most optimum source giving maximum specific activity 6.776U/mg as compared to fructose, sucrose and glucose. An inoculum size of 9% was found optimum for PHB depolymerase production with a maximum specific activity of 7.206U/mg after 24 hrs of incubation using lactose as an extra carbon source, pH 7, substrate concentration 0.2% and 45°C temperature. From the present study, it has concluded that the soil is a rich source of potential microorganisms, both bacteria and fungi, capable of degrading natural polymers.

1361-1372 Download
69
SOME ADDITIONS TO THE UREDINALES OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR (AJ & K), PAKISTAN
N.S. AFSHAN1*, S.H. IQBAL2, A.N. KHALID2 AND A.R. NIAZI2

SOME ADDITIONS TO THE UREDINALES OF AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR (AJ & K), PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT:
Melampsora laricis-populina, Phragmidium shogranense, Puccinia coronata var. coronata, P. menthae and P. nitidula were collected and described from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan as new records for this area.

1373-1379 Download
70
INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT BY SAFE CHEMICALS
NIGHAT SARWAR1*, M. HAYAT ZAHID1, SHAFAQ ASHFAQ1 AND FARHAT F. JAMIL2

INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN CHICKPEA AGAINST ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT BY SAFE CHEMICALS
ABSTRACT:
Chickpea variety, C727 susceptible to Ascochyta rabiei, was grown in small plots of 20 sq feet area. Induction treatments were given by spraying aqueous solutions of 1.0 mM Salicylic acid, 50 mM K2HPO4 (analytical and commercial grade), 0.4 mM Bion and two types of neem leaves extract (50mg/ml, leaves boiled in methanol, methanol was evaporated then residue dissolved in water and in other extract neem leaves were boiled in water) at flowering stage of the plants in triplicates. Control plants were treated with water only. One week after induction treatments, all the plants were challenged with spore suspension of A. rabiei (106 spores/ml). Disease data was recorded after disease was fully developed on control plants. Plant tissues were collected at 0

1381-1387 Download
71
INHERITANCE ASSESSMENT OF CHOCOLATE SPOT AND RUST DISEASE TOLERANCE IN MATURE FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.) PLANTS
IJAZ RASOOL NOORKA AND M.A.S. EL-BRAMAWY

INHERITANCE ASSESSMENT OF CHOCOLATE SPOT AND RUST DISEASE TOLERANCE IN MATURE FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.) PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
The major aim for any crop breeding program is the development of good quality lines with an adequate resistance/tolerance to yield-reducing stresses. Fungal diseases i.e., chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae Sard) and rust (Uromyces fabae (Pers.) Schart) are the most destructive diseases of faba bean and cause considerable dramatic damage losses on faba bean yield worldwide. Therefore, the use of breeding efforts by studying the mode of inheritance of resistance to both diseases (chocolate spot and rust) in Vicia faba, give evidence for the existence of one or more genes controlling the resistance of these diseases. Identifying the mode of inheritance of field resistance to chocolate spot (B. fabae) and rust (U. fabae) diseases in Vicia faba at the adult plant stage was considered in this work. The F1’s, F2’s and F3’s off-spring of resistant and susceptible faba bean plants were assessed under natural infection in a private field in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt, from the period of mid October to mid April in two successive sesaons (2007/08 and 2008/09). The faba bean plants were evaluated for the resistance to chocolate spot (B. fabae) and rust (U. fabae) diseases at maturity stage using a five-class scale of increasing susceptibility to the disease, which took into account the number of infected leaves and the size of the sporulating lesions. The results exhibited that the F1’s was completely resistant to both the diseases, the F2’s segregated a clear 3 resistant: 1 susceptible, while the F3’s confirmed the F2’s segregation, which suggests that a dominant character controlled by a single locus. This resistance has well potencial for direct use in commercial faba bean breeding or for transfer to other faba bean gemplasm.

1389-1402 Download
72
LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM CONTENTS OF CANOLA IRRIGATED WITH SEWAGE WATER
KAFEEL AHMAD1*, ABID EJAZ1, MEHWISH AZAM1, ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1, MUHAMMAD ASHRAF2,3, F. AL-QURAINY3, ASIA FARDOUS1, SUMAIRA GONDAL1, ALI REZA BAYAT4 AND EHSAN ELAHI VALEEM5*

LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROMIUM CONTENTS OF CANOLA IRRIGATED WITH SEWAGE WATER
ABSTRACT:
The present research was conducted in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the effect of sewage water treatments on accumulation of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Cr) in cv. Dunkeld of canola (Brassica napus L.). The results showed that each metal treatment had its own specific effects on the growth of the canola cultivar. Sewage water application had a significant effect on number of leaves and leaf area, whereas root length remained unchanged. There was a decline in yield and yield related attributes in the treated crop. Soil, forage and seed Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations increased consistently with increase in the treatment level of sewage water. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that municipal sewage water of cities containing high levels of metals has inhibitory effect on growth and seed yield of canola.

1403-1410 Download
73
FORMULATION OF AVICENNIA MARINA PELLETS AND ITS APPLICATION IN CONTROLLING ROOT DISEASES IN LEGUMINOUS AND NON LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
MARIUM TARIQ AND SHAHNAZ DAWAR

FORMULATION OF AVICENNIA MARINA PELLETS AND ITS APPLICATION IN CONTROLLING ROOT DISEASES IN LEGUMINOUS AND NON LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
ABSTRACT:
After slight modification, pellets of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh plant parts viz., leaves, stem and pneumatophore were prepared from pyrophyllite at two different ratios 50:50 and 25:75 and incorporated in soil @ 3, 5, 7 and 10 pellets/pot. A pot experiment was designed to assess its effectiveness in promoting plant growth and suppression of root rot diseases. Observation showed that 5 leaves and stem powder pellets with 50:50 ratio gave significant results in increasing plant weight, height and controlling root rot diseases caused by pathogenic fungi viz., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) plants. Of the different dosages used, 5 pellets/pot were found to be best followed by 3 and 7 in controlling root rot diseases and promotion of growth parameters.

1411-1415 Download
74
STEROIDS AND TRITERPENOIDS FROM GREY MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA
S.A. MAHERA1, V.U. AHMAD2, S.M. SAIFULLAH1, F.V. MOHAMMAD2 AND K. AMBREEN2

STEROIDS AND TRITERPENOIDS FROM GREY MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA
ABSTRACT:
Phytochemical investigation on the pneumatophores (aerial roots) of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., resulted in the isolation of two sterols, Stigmasterol-3-O-β-D galactopyranoside

1417-1422 Download
75
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1423- Download
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